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BIODIVERSITY 

DATA SOURCEBOOK 




WORLD CONSERVATION 
MONITORING CENTRE 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
UNEP-WCIVIC, Cambridge 



http://www.archive.org/details/biodiversitydata94groo 



WCMC Biodiversity Series No 1 



I 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Compiled by the 

World Conservation l\/lonitoring Centre 

Editor: Brian Groombridge 
Advisory Editor: Martin Jenkins 



In collaboration with 

lUCN - The World Conservation Union 
United Nations Environment Programme 
World Wide Fund for Nature 



World Conservation Press 



November 1994 



The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, based in Cambridge, UK. was establislied 
in 1988 as a company limited by guarantee witii charitable status. WCMC is managed £is a 
joint-venture between the three partners in the World Conservation Strategy and its 
successor Caring For The Earth: lUCN - The World Conservation Union, UNEP - United 
Nations Environment Programme, and WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature. Its mission is to 
provide information on the status, security, management and utilisation of the world's 
biological diversity to support conservation and sustainable development. 



Prepared for publication by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre within the funding 
arrangements made by lUCN, WWF and UNEP in support of the Centre. This support is 
gratefully acknowledged. 

A contribution to UNEP - The United Nations Environment Programme 



lUCN ^ 



T>ie World CoRMnration Union 



WWF 






UNEP 



Published by: 

ISBN 

Copyright 



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World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK. 

-1-899628-00-2 

1994 World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Reproduction of this publication for educational or other 
non-commercial purposes is authorised without prior permission from 
the copyright holder. 

Reproduction for resale or other commercial purpose is prohibited 
without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. 

World Conservation (Monitoring Centre (Comp.), Groombridge, B. 
(Ed). 1994. Biodiversity Data Sourcebook. World Conservation 
Press, Cambridge, UK. 155pp. 

Michael Edwards 

Unwin Brothers, The Gresham Press, Old Woking Surrey, UK. 
A member of the Martins Printing Group 

lUCN Publication Services Unit 

Worid Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK 

The designations of geographical entities in this report and the 
presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any 
opinion whatsoever on the part of WCMC or other participaiing 
organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or 
area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers 
or tx)undaries. 



Contents 

Acknowledgements 

Introduction 

Table 1 . Country species diversity 

Table 2. Threatened species 

Table 3. National Red Data Books 

Table 4. Major food crops 

Table 5. Domestic livestock 

Table 6. Marine resources 

Table 7. Forests in the tropics 

Table 8. National protected areas 

Table 9. Systematics collections 

Figure 1 . Map: states Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity 

Figure 2. Map: countries with highest species diversity 

Figure 3. Map: countries with national Red Data Books 

Figure 4. Map: world distribution of coral reefs 

Figure 5. Map: states Party to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 

Figure 6. Map: world distribution of forests in the tropics 

Figure 7. Map: world distribution of protected areas larger than 2 million ha 

Figure 8. Map: countries with most systematics collections in relation 
to national biodiversity 

References 



II 

1 

4 
20 

28 

36 

58 

66 

100 

122 

132 

141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 

148 
149 



Acknowledgements 

A significant part of the information presented here results from the continuing programmes of large 
international organisations. Information on crop production, fishery production, forest assessment, plant 
and animal genetic resources, and related topics is collated by the UN Food and Agriculture 
Organization (FAO) in Rome, in collaboration with national sources. Several data sets from FAO 
publications are included in the present document. The Species Survival Commission (SSC) of lUCN - 
The World Conservation Union is largely responsible, among other things, for determining which 
species are globally threatened, and which is the appropriate status category. The lUCN Commission 
on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) is similarly responsible for the categorisation of 
protected areas and for promoting international standards of management. WCMC works with SSC and 
CNPPA to manage databases and prepare publications on behalf of lUCN. 

We express particular thanks to the following organisations that provided large data sets specifically 
for this publication. The International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) collates data from a 
range of organisations in the plant genetic resources field and provided WCMC with a listing of 
germplasm collection accessions from their database. BirdLife International (BLI), the leading 
international network concerned with bird conservation, have recently completed their second review 
of the status of the world's birds. BLI supplied statistics on the number of threatened bird species in 
each country, and allowed access to their library. Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) 
supplied a country listing from their database on the world's botanic gardens; the World Data Centre 
on Microorganisms (WDCM) supplied a similar listing of collections of microorganism cultures reported 
to them. 

We also wish to thank the following individuals for assistance, as well as a large number of others who 
have provided advice. Harold Cogger, Australian Museum. Serglu Fandofan, State Department for the 
Protection of the Environment, Moldova. P. Anholt Habr, Treaty Section, United Nations. J.G. Hawkes. 
Tom Hazekamp, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. V. Hunter, International Whaling 
Commission. Roger Klocek, John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago. Mart KiJIvik, Nature Conservation 
Centre, Estonia. Nona Lodzina, Ministry of the Environment and Regional Development, Latvia. B. 
Moutou, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Satoko Otsuka, Japan Wildlife Research 
Centre. Paul Skelton, J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, South Africa. Alison Stattersfield, BirdLife 
International. Hideaki Sugawara, World Data Centre on Microorganisms (WDCM), Japan. Uudo Timm, 
Ministry of the Environment, Estonia. Oswaldo T6lles Vald6s. Kelley Watson, The Nature Conservancy, 
USA. Diane Wyse Jackson, Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), London. 



WCMC credits 

Much of the information in this document is derived from databases and other resources at WCMC and 
as such is based upon the work of all parts of the Centre and a large number of staff. Among those 
who have assisted in this project are: Clare Billington, Gillian Bunting, Mary Cordiner, Helen Corrigan, 
Mary Edwards, Jo Taylor. 

The following have had particular responsibility for parts of this book. Project concept: N. Mark Collins. 
Editor and design: Brian Groombridge. Advisory Editor: Martin Jenkins. Research and compilation: Neil 
Cox, Brian Groombridge, Martin Jenkins, Chris Magin, with assistance from Daniella Pitts and Jessica 
Pullen. Production: Esther Byford, Julie Reay. GIS analysis: Simon BIyth, Jonathan Rhind. Maps: 
Corinna Ravilious. 



INTRODUCTION 

This document 

An extended introduction to many theoretical and applied aspects of biological diversity was provided 
in Global Biodiversity: status of the Earth's living resources (WCMC, 1992). That document, which 
benefitted from collaboration with many organisations and individual scientists, was produced' at the 
time of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de 
Janeiro. The purpose of the book was to provide conceptual background and baseline data both to 
practitioners in the biodiversity field, and to all concerned persons who needed a guide into that 
complex and suddenly highly topical area. 

The present sourcebook is being released in part as a contribution to the First Conference of the Parties 
to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Bahamas, 28 November - 9 December) in anticipation that 
it will provide information of interest and relevance. Given the grounding previously provided in Global 
Biodiversity, the present volume concentrates on data rather than text and provides an illustrative set 
of data tables, in part revised and expanded from the earlier volume. The choice of data to be included 
and the manner of presentation have been determined with the likely end-users borne strongly in mind. 
With this aim, most data are presented in standardised tables by country, so that they are immediately 
available to users working at a national level but can also be placed easily in regional and global 
contexts. 

Tables cover the following subjects: country species diversity; threatened species within each country; 
national red data books; major food crops of the world; domestic livestock; marine and coastal 
resources; forests in the tropics; national protected areas; systematics collections. 

Some tables, such as that giving data on threatened species within each country, are a direct update 
of earlier material; some, such as those on food crops and forests in the tropics, comprise data 
presented previously combined with new information; some are mostly new. Overall, they give a good 
indication of the global availability of information on many aspects of biodiversity, drawing attention 
to some of the gaps that exist and to the regional imbalances in the distribution of biodiversity and the 
resources that have been devoted to its assessment and study. 

Other important topics which bear consideration but which have been excluded from this volume 
include biodiversity investment, temperate forests, introduced species and pharmaceutical use of plant 
and animal products. These and others may figure in future publications. 

General aims of the Convention on Biological Diversity 

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was signed at the United Nations Conference on 
Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 by 154 nations. The CBD is now in 
force, and as of 28 October 1 994 there were 96 contracting Parties. 

The objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity are threefold (paraphrased from Article 1 of 
the CBD text): 

• the conservation of biological diversity, 

• the sustainable use of its components, and 

• the equitable sharing of benefits from use of genetic resources. 

In effect, the CBD aims to encourage and enable all countries to conserve biological diversity, to ensure 
that its use in support of national development is sustainable, and to reconcile national interests with 
the maintenance of highest possible levels of global biodiversity. 



' with project sponsorship from the Overseas Development Administration, UK, and additional support from The Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands, The Ministry of the Environment, Denmark, and The World Bank. 



Each country has its own unique combination of living species, habitats and ecosystems which 
together make up its biodiversity resource. Implicit in the CBD is the concept that each country may 
exploit sustainably its own biodiversity in any way which it sees fit. However, because each country 
also contributes to overall global biodiversity, it has a corresponding responsibility to play a part In its 
maintenance. 

To enable it to carry out these two functions effectively, each country needs to have as accurate as 
possible an understanding of its own biodiversity and also an understanding of exactly how its 
biodiversity fits into the global pattern. In the latter regard, it is particularly important to understand 
which parts of a country's biodiversity may be of regional or global importance. 

Some requirements of the CBD 

Overall, the CBD imposes a very substantial set of obligations upon contracting Parties, virtually all of 
which demand sound information as a basis for policy development, management action, and 
investment. Each Party will need for its own planning to obtain and manage data on biodiversity within 
its jurisdiction, and the global community will be interested in data capable of allowing funds, 
technology and expertise to be directed and used wisely and effectively. Countries will also attempt 
to identify, limit, and consult upon, adverse effects that originate within their boundaries but occur 
outside their national jurisdiction. 

Emphasis is placed throughout the CBD text on the importance of capacity-building in developing 
countries and the need to take appropriate account of rights over resources and access to technologies. 
The Convention text also explicitly recognises that economic and social development, and eradication 
of poverty, are the overriding priorities of developing countries. Thus, effective implementation of the 
CBD in developing countries will largely depend on the degree to which developed country Parties 
assist in building capacity and the transfer of technology and financial resources. 

Article 6 of the CBD calls upon the Parties to prepare national strategies, plans or programmes for the 
conservation and sustainable use of their biological resources. Resolution 2 agreed at the Conference 
for the Adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity ('the Final Act') held in Nairobi in May 1 992 
recognised the importance of Country Studies to the preparation of national strategies and action plans, 
and outlined the coverage of such a study. UNEP, with assistance from WCMC, has since published 
Guidelines for Country Studies on Biological Diversity; these provide a suggested framework for the 
collection of data both for national planning purposes and as a contribution to regional international 
assessments. Article 7, supported by Annex I, further specifies for contracting Parties a range of 
components of biological diversity that need by reason of social, economic, cultural or scientific 
importance, to be identified and monitored. These range from genes and genomes, through populations, 
cultivars, breeds and species, to communities, habitats and ecosystems. Article 20 stipulates that a 
flow of funds from developed to developing countries would be required in addition to those already 
provided under current bilateral and multilateral agreements, and Article 21 outlines the kind of financial 
mechanism that will be required to regulate this flow for the purposes of the CBD. 

The need for data 

Information is the foundation of all types of activities involved in the conservation of biodiversity. The 
kinds of data needed to support national and international endeavours in biodiversity conservation are 
as wide as the scope of the CBD, and in addition to biological diversity itself, the CBD is concerned 
with the social, economic, legislative, and technological aspects of human interaction with the 
biosphere. The status and distribution of species and habitats is continually changing, as are the costs 
of their conservation and the benefits of their use. Regular and systematic revision of information, and 
collection of new data, are therefore necessary. However, in many parts of the world, the data needed 
for biodiversity assessment are incomplete, sometimes startlingly so. Methods therefore have to be 
found for extrapolating in a reasonable way from what information there is to ensure that decisions 
which affect the future of biodiversity are made on the best available data and analysis. 



TABLES 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 1 . Country species diversity 

Biodiversity may be evaluated at several different levels (eg. genes, species, habitats, ecosystems). 
It is widely accepted that, of all these, the species is the single most useful unit to use in biodiversity 
assessments, whether these are carried out locally, nationally, regionally or globally. 

Species best fill this role because, of all the possibilities, they best reflect observable diversity in nature 
and there is at least working agreement as to their definition and content. This is certainly not to imply 
that there is no argument: taxonomy is an inexact practice. Indeed, in virtually no higher taxonomic 
group can all species be recognised and enumerated with total precision. Furthermore, the concept of 
what exactly a species is differs considerably between groups of organisms. The difficulty of defining 
a species applies most strongly to organisms which do not always reproduce by outbreeding 
(exogamy), that is by sexual reproduction between two different individuals. This applies to many 
microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, unicellular organisms) and plants, including some of considerable 
commercial importance to humans, where individuals may be self-fertile, or reproduce asexually. 
Another practical difficulty is in deciding where to draw the line in geographically separate (allopatric) 
populations; ie. in any one site it is usually possible to count the number of species but in comparing 
biota at two sites with elements in common it may be difficult to tell whether populations should be 
placed in the same species or not. 

Species richness 

Nevertheless, it is possible in most cases to reach reasonable consensus on what constitutes a 
species, and it is theoretically possible to count the number of species at a given site or in a given 
country. This approach gives a figure for species richness and this is one of the most straightforward 
measures of biodiversity. 

Ideally this measure would consist of a complete catalogue of all the species occurring in the area 
under consideration. In practice, this is extremely difficult to achieve. This is because the great 
majority of species are very small and are difficult to identify and count in situ or to collect 
comprehensively for counting in laboratories. Carrying out such whole species counts is only 
conceivable for very small areas and even then, collecting and counting all microorganisms is extremely 
difficult. Furthermore, in many parts of the world, a high proportion of the small species have never 
been scientifically named, to such an extent that it is thought that between 80% and 95% of all living 
species have not yet been described. Moreover the expertise to identify these species satisfactorily 
is missing - it is widely acknowledged that there is a chronic shortage worldwide of taxonomists and 
systematists. 

To circumvent these problems, estimates of species richness almost always have to be based on some 
form of sampling and extrapolation. One way to do this is to take groups of organisms which are fairly 
easy to observe, count and identify and to try to establish how many there are in a given area, be it 
a woodland, national park, state, country or even continent. It is then assumed that these groups act 
as surrogates for the whole of biodiversity - ie. areas which are rich in these are presumed rich in 
biodiversity overall. Another way is to try to count the number of species in a sample plot of fixed 
size (this may be an attempt at a complete species count or may consist of counting all species in 
particular groups) and extrapolate from this to a larger area. This assumes that the richness in the 
sample plots is truly representative of the richness of the area that the plot is a sample of. It is thus 
more of an ecologically based measure of diversity, as it attempts to compare different habitats or 
ecosystems. 

These measures of biodiversity - total number of species, and number of species per unit area - are 
fairly crude, and ecologists argue that they do not reflect the true complexity of biological diversity. 
Other, more sophisticated measures have been proposed, which take into account factors such as the 
relative abundance of different species or the complexity of the interactions between them. However, 
in general, the more complex the measure the more difficult it is to gather the information to derive 
it, the more limited its application and the more contentious its meaning. 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 

In practice, overall species counts tend to be used for terrestrial vertebrates (nnammals, birds, reptiles, 
amphibians), for some groups of fishes and a few well known invertebrate groups such as butterflies 
and dragonflies. Sampling of plots is usually the technique used for small animals (most invertebrates 
and microorganisms). Both techniques are applied to measuring plant diversity. 

Endemfsm 

While counts of species numbers may reasonably reflect the biological richness of a given area, they 
do not necessarily reflect its uniqueness. The latter is an equally significant measure of an area's 
importance in a wider context. Probably the single most useful measure of an area's uniqueness is a 
count or estimate of the number of endemic species it contains. A species is endemic to some defined 
area if it is confined entirely to that area. The term is derived from medical science, where a disease 
is described as endemic if confined to a certain area, and epidemic if widespread. It can also be applied 
to other taxonomic levels, or to faunas, floras and communities of species. Distribution areas change 
through time so endemism is usually understood to refer to contemporary conditions. 

Geographic endemism 

The area of concern in assessing endemism is typically defined by geographic features, so a species 
may be described as endemic to a desert basin, a river system or lake, a mountain peak or an island. 
Information on the distribution area of a species is basic to most evolutionary and biogeographic 
studies, so geographic endemism is of considerable biological interest. Its significance varies with 
scale. In general the concept of endemism becomes more meaningful as the defined area is reduced 
in size. 

Areas rich in endemic species might variously be interpreted as sites of active speciation, or of refuge 
for relict species, but whatever the theoretical interest, it is important for practical biodiversity 
management to be able to identify such discrete areas of high endemism. By definition, species 
endemic to a given site occur nowhere else. The smaller the area of endemism, the more at risk the 
endemic species will be through deterministic or stochastic population events. Whilst all may be 
vulnerable to the same episode of habitat modification, by the same token, all might in principle benefit 
from the same conservation action. It is desirable to identify any such opportunities for cost-effective 
conservation action. However, for most species the basic distribution data needed in order to 
determine areas of high endemism are unavailable or remain uncoilated. 

Political endemism 

Endemism can also be defined in purely political terms, so that a species is described as endemic to 
a particular country, or administrative unit within a country. There is no direct biological interest in the 
concept of political endemism, except where the country is geographically distinct, perhaps an island 
state. 

However, political endemism is of immense importance to the conservation of biological diversity 
because, almost without exception, conservation and management actions are applied and maintained 
in a national political context. This is the case regardless of the source of scientific advice or of 
financial support for the actions undertaken. 

Assessing the number of endemics in an area is more problematic than trying to count the total 
number of species in a given group in that area. The latter does not depend on knowledge of where 
else the species counted may occur. In contrast, the former cannot be carried out in isolation, as it 
relies on having a complete knowledge of the distribution of the species involved (ie. to be able to 
count a species as endemic, one has to be sure that it does not occur anywhere else). Problems of 
taxonomy may also be felt more keenly, in particular in deciding whether geographically separate 
(allopatric) populations of similar organisms belong to the same species or not (ie. two populations of 
birds on adjacent islands may be considered races of the same species, in which case neither island 
has an endemic, or may be regarded as two separate though closely related species, in which case 
both islands have one endemic species each; the total species count for each island remains the same 
in both cases). 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

A large proportion of described species are endemic to single countries. For example, around 45% of 
the c 25,000 species of tetrapod vertebrates (ie. vertebrates other than fishes) are endemic to a single 
country. The proportion of country endemics varies between vertebrate classes, from around 30% in 
birds to 60% in reptiles and in amphibians. 

National biodiversity index 

The need for a simplified index to represent national levels of biodiversity has often been recognised, 
mainly in order to provide regional or global context for activities undertaken at national level. WCMC 
has developed a preliminary version of such an index (unpublished; see Notes below for outline details 
of this system). Figure 2 shows the countries with the 20 highest scores according to this index, 
taking account of overall species diversity (richness and endemism) and country area. This provides 
an indication, for working purposes, of which countries are particularly rich in biodiversity. 

Regional analysis 

Ideally, analysis of how important an area or country was for biodiversity (in terms of species) would 
make use of more elaborate measures than those above. One way of doing this is to lessen the 
distinction between endemic and non-endemic by taking into account how widespread is each species 
counted. Thus an area containing species occurring in only one or two other areas should be regarded 
as more important than one containing only widespread species. As an example, Haiti and the 
Dominican Republic which together comprise the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, share the great 
majority of their plant and animal species. Each country therefore has very few endemic species and 
therefore does not score highly in any comparative assessment of biodiversity based on number of 
endemics. However, many of the species on Hispaniola only occur there, and are thus endemic to the 
island, making the island itself of great importance for biodiversity. To reflect this it would theoretically 
be possible to weight the importance of each species by factoring in the number of countries it 
occurred in, for example by giving an endemic a score of 1 , a species which occurred in two countries 
a score of 1/2, one which occurred in three countries a score of 1/3 etc. 

In reality carrying out this form of analysis on a global scale for any more than a small number of 
species would be an extremely elaborate and time-consuming procedure, dependent on the availability 
of complete distribution data for all the species to be analysed. This is clearly not a realistic proposition 
at present. 

Chapter 1 5 in Global Biodiversity (WCMC, 1 992) provides an overview of some important attempts 
to use species distribution data to define geographical areas (often Individual forests or mountain 
ranges) that are especially rich in species of some given subject taxon. This kind of approach, of which 
there are several variants, offers considerable promise although the extent to which areas defined as 
important for one group may be similarly important for some other group is as yet little investigated, 
and simultaneous analysis of data on a large number of groups presents a substantial challenge. 

NOTES TO TABLE 1 

Table 1 provides working estimates of the number of species in selected taxa present In each country of the world, and the 
number in those taxa thought to be endemic to each country. 

Key: 

Indicates lack of data. 

The groups covered are: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes (freshwater only), flowering plants (angiosperms), conifers 
and cycads (gymnosperms), ferns and relatives. Many overseas territories, dependencies, and other categories, are listed 
separately from the 'parent' country if relatively large and/or geographically remote (eg. the Canaries are included with Spain, 
but New Caledonia is listed separately from France). Many gaps in the data remain, and although further research could fill many 
such gaps, the lack of readily available data for many countries and groups of species is of concern. We have not been able to 
obtain complete sets of data for all recently independent states, and in some such cases partial data for the former, more 
inclusive, country are given. 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 

For Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians there are two data columns, the left (total species) giving an estimate of the 
number of species present in each country, the right (endemic species) giving an estimate of the number restricted to each 
country. For Birds, there is a third data column (breeding species) giving an estimate of the numbar of breeding birds in each 
country. For Freshwater Fishes, Flowering plants. Conifers and Cycads, and Ferns, there is an estimate of total species present. 
An estimate of country endemism in the three plant groups combined is given (Higher Plants - endemic species). 

The table is based on expansion and revision of material originally collated for Global Biodiversity (WCMC, 1992). The most 
extensive change is the addition of a third column of bird data; the information on birds now includes an estimate of the total 
number of bird species recorded in each country (in addition to the number of breeding species and the number of endemic 
species). Certain wide-ranging animal groups restricted to marine waters (whales and dolphins, turtles, snakes) are excluded 
where possible from the estimates. Introduced and recently feral species are also excluded where possible. 

Data in the table are derived from a large number of sources; information on the source of any estimate can be obtained from 
WCMC. Lists of mammal, bird and amphibian species thought on current evidence to be restricted to a single country were 
derived from world taxonomic checklists (respectively; Wilson and Reeder, 1 993; Sibley and Monroe, 1 990, 1 993; Frost, 1 985, 
and supplement by Duellman 1993), and this database used to calculate the 'endemic species' data column. The reptile 
endemism and plant data were derived from a number of country or regional sources; these data columns are less complete and 
less consistent in approach. It is important to keep in mind that lack of precision in the delineation of species boundaries, 
differences in taxonomy used by country sources, and the continuing description of new species, ensures that a large margin 
of error will inevitably be associated with species lists and statistical measures of biodiversity. 

We are most grateful to the following for providing new data for this table. Estonia; Mart Kulvik, Nature Conservation Centre, and 
Uudo Timm, Senior Expert, Ministry of the Environment. Moldova; Sergiu Fandofan, Director General, State Department for the 
Protection of the Environment. Latvia: Ms llona Lodzina, Head of the Nature Protection Division. Ministry of the Environment 
and Regional Development. Japan; Satoko Otsuka, Japan Wildlife Research Centre. Fishes of Sri Lanka: Roger Klocek, Curator 
of Fishes, John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago. Australia: Harold Cogger, Australian Museum. USA; Kelley Watson, data from 
The Network of Natural Heritage Programs and Conservation Data Centers, and The Nature Conservancy, USA. Fishes of 
Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe. South Africa, Swaziland; Paul Skelton, Curator of Freshwater Fish, J. 
L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, South Africa. 

NOTES TO FIGURE 2 

The map shows the countries with the 20 highest scores according to an index estimating overall levels of national biodiversity. 
This index (WCMC, unpublished) uses the kind of data in Table 1 . Note that the map in Figure 2 was based on an earlier version 
of this table and may not reflect current information. In deriving this index, it is assumed that the four (non-fish) vertebrate 
classes are each of equal importance and plants are equal to these four combined. The data for each category for each country 
are first normalised, reducing numbers to a value between and 1 . A richness index and endemism index is produced for plants 
and vertebrates separately by averaging the relevant figures, and an overall diversity index is calculated as the mean of the 
vertebrate and plant figures for each country. This index could readily be weighted toward either richness or endemism. 
Regression analysis using the standard species-area (Arrhenius) relationship allows an area-adjusted index to be calculated. For 
many purposes, absolute richness is as relevant as area-adjusted richness. The overall richness represented in Figure 2 is 
therefore based on the average of the direct and the area-adjusted indices. 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



M«mnMl« 



Birds Birds 



RsptUas 



RsptHas 





total 


endemic 


total 


breeding 


endemic 


total 


endemic 




species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


EUROPE 
















Albania 


68 





306 


230 





31 





Andorra 


- 







111 





- 





Austria 


83 





414 


213 





14 





Balanjs 


- 





- 


221 





8 





Belgium 


68 





429 


180 





8 





Bosnia & Herzegovina 









- 





- 





Bulgaria 


81 





374 


240 





33 





Croatia 


- 





- 


224 





- 





Czech Republic 


- 





- 


199 





- 





fornwr Czechoslovakia 


74 


-_ 




- 


- 


- 


- 


Denmark 


43 





439 


196 





5 





Estonia 


65 





330 


213 





5 





Faeroe Islands 


- 





259 


71 











Finland 


60 





425 


248 





5 





France 


93 





506 


269 


9 


32 





Germany 


76 





503 


239 





12 





Gibraltar 


• 




282 


34 





9 





Greece 


95 


2 


398 


251 





51 


3 


Hungary 


72 





363 


205 





15 





Iceland 


11 





316 


88 











Ireland 


25 





417 


142 





1 





Italy 


90 


3 


490 


234 





40 


1 


Latvia 


83 





325 


217 










Liechtenstein 


64 





235 


124 










Lithuania 


68 





305 


202 










Luxembourg 


55 





289 


126 










Macedonia 









- 










Malta 


22 





395 


26 





8 


1 


Moldova 


68 





270 


177 





9 





Monaco 














6 





Netherlands 


55 





456 


191 





7 





Norway 


54 





453 


243 





5 





Poland 


79 





421 


227 





9 





Portugal 


63 


1 


441 


207 


2 


29 


2 


Romania 


84 





368 


247 





25 





San Marino 


13 





137 







9 





Slovakia 









209 





- 





Slovenia 


69 





361 


207 





21 





Spain 


82 


4 


506 


278 


5 


53 


9 


Sweden 


60 





463 


249 





6 





Switzerland 


75 





400 


193 





14 





Ukraine 


- 


1 




263 





19 





United Kingdom 


60 





590 


230 


1 


8 





former Yugoslavia 


98 


1 









- 






Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphlblam 


Amphiblant 


Frathwatar 


Flowaring 


Conifara 


Fama 


HlBhar 






Rsha* 


Plant! 


(.Cycadt 




Plant! 


totd 


andamic 


tetal 


toul 


total 


total 


andamie 


(paein 


tpaclaa 


•paclaa 


•paclat 


apaclaa 


apaclaa 


apaclaa 


13 





- 


2,965 


21 


45 


24 


- 





- 


980 


6 


26 




20 





- 


2,950 


12 


66 


35 


10 





- 




- 


- 




17 





- 


1,400 


2 


50 




. 





- 


. 


- 


- 




17 







- 


3,505 


15 


52 


320 


. 


. 


- : 


. 


. 


. 


- 


- 


■ 


2,507 


11 


72 


62 


14 





- 


1,200 


2 


50 


1 


11 





30 


1,630 


40 


4 


- 










236 


1 


25 


1 


5 





66 


1,040 


4 


58 


- 


32 


2 


- 


4,500 


20 


110 


133 


20 





- 


2,600 


10 


72 


'6 


15 


1 


98 


4,900 


21 


71 


742 


17 





7 


2,148 


8 


58 


38 








- 


340 


1 


36 


1 


3 





25 


892 


2 


56 


. 


34 


5 


- 


5,463 


29 


106 


712 


13 





109 


1,153 


4 


48 


- 


10 





- 


1,400 


10 


- 


- 


13 





- 


1,200 








14 





- 


1,200 


4 


42 


- 


- 





• 


- 


- 




- 


1 





- 


900 


3 


11 


5 


13 





82 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 





- 


- 


4 


18 









- 


1,170 


3 


48 


- 


5 





- 


1,650 


4 


61 


1 


18 





- 


2,300 


10 


62 


3 


17 





28 


2,500 


8 


65 


150 


19 





87 


3,175 


11 


62 


41 


3 





4 


- 


- 




- 


- 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 





98 


- 


- 


- 


- 


25 


1 


50 


4,916 


18 


114 


941 


13 





- 


1,650 


4 


60 


1 







. 


2,927 


16 


87 


1 


16 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 





36 


1,550 


3 


70 


16 


. 





- 


5,250 


23 


78 


137 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Birds Birds 



Reptiles 



Reptiles 



totsl 
species 



endemic 
species 



totel 
species 



breeding endemic 
species species 



totsl 
species 



endemic 
species 



ASIA 



Afghanistan 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 



123 



17 
109 



460 



294 
684 



235 



28 
295 



103 
46 
52 
25 

119 



Bhutan 

BIOT 

Brunei 

Cambodia 

China 



99 

157 
123 
394 







77 



543 

45 

438 

429 
1,244 



448 

14 

359 

307 

1,100 







67 



19 



44 

82 

340 



2 




1 

111 



Cyprus 
Georgia 
Hong Kong 
India 
Indonesia 



21 

24 
316 

436 



1 

2 



44 

201 



347 

381 
1,219 
1,531 



79 

76 

923 

1,519 



2 





55 

397 



23 

46 

72 

389 

511 



1 



2 

186 

302 



Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 



140 
81 
92 

132 

71 



5 
1 
3 

38 





502 
381 
500 
583 
361 



323 
172 
180 
>250 
141 



1 
1 

21 




164 
81 



66 



26 
1 
1 

27 




Kazakhstan 
Korea, D.P.R. 
Korea, Republic 
Kuwait 
Kyrgyzstan 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Maldives 

Mongolia 

Myanmar 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 
Russia 
Saudi Arabia 
Singapore 
Sri Lanka 

Syria 
Taiwan 
Tajikistan 
Thailand 



49 
21 

172 

54 

286 

3 

134 

251 
167 
56 
151 
153 

11 

77 
45 
88 

63 
63 

265 



4 




1 



27 

6 

6 
1 
2 
3 
97 



20 

1 

1 

13 

2 

10 

2 

7 



390 
372 
321 

651 
329 
736 
125 
390 

999 
824 
430 
671 
556 

255 

413 
295 
428 

341 
445 

915 



115 

112 

20 

487 

154 

501 

23 

867 
611 
107 
375 
395 

23 

155 
118 
250 

204 

160 

616 









1 


11 



4 
2 


183 



13 





23 



14 



3 



37 
19 
25 
29 
23 

66 

268 



21 

203 

80 

64 

172 

190 

17 
58 
84 



80 

38 

298 




1 
3 



1 
2 
69 



38 
3 
9 

23 
158 



4 

75 

2 

20 



35 



10 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphibian* 


Amphibians 


Freshwater 


Flowering 


Conifers 


Ferns 


Higher 






Rshes 


Plants 


& Cycads 




Plants 


total 


endemic 


total 


total 


total 


total 


endemic 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


6 


1 


84 


3,500 


. 


. 


800 


6 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 








195 


- 


- 


- 


19 





- 


5,000 


- 


- 


- 


24 





- 


5,446 


22 


. 


75 











100 


- 


- 


- 


76 





- 


3,000 


- 


- 


7 


28 





>215 


- 


- 


- 


- 


263 


131 


686 


30,000 


200 


2,000 


18,000 


4 







1,650 


. 


. 


- 


11 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


23 


1 


- 


1,800 


4 


180 


25 


197 


110 


- 


1 5,000 


- 


1,000 


5,000 


270 


100 




27,500 


- 


1,875 


17,500 


11 


5 


269 


. 


- 


. 


- 


6 







- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


26 


- 


- 


- 


- 


52 


36 



186 
26 


4,700 
2,200 


42 


630 


2,000 


10 















14 







2,898 


- 


- 


107 


14 


1 


130 


2,898 


- 


- 


224 


2 





- 


234 


- 


- 


- 


3 





- 


- 


- 




- 


37 


1 


244 


- 


- 




- 







- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


158 


39 


449 


15,000 


- 


500 


3,600 








1 




- 






8 





70 


2,272 




;; 


229 


75 


9 


. 


7,000 




- 


1,071 


36 


8 


120 


6,500 


23 


450 


315 


- 





3 


1,018 


3 


14 


73 


17 


2 


156 


4,929 


21 


- 


372 


63 


44 


- 


8,000 


31 


900 


3,500 


. 








220 


- 


- 


- 


23 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 







8 


1,729 


- 


- 


- 


- 





73 


2,000 


2 


166 


2 


39 


21 


65 


3,000 




314 


890 


. 







- 


- 






31 


9 


57 


2,983 


20 


565 


- 


2 







- 


- 




- 


107 


16 


>600 


11,000 


25 


600 


- 



11 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Mammala 



Mammals 



Birds 



Birds 



Rsptilas 



Raptilsa 



ASIA continued 



Total 



•ndamic 
spaclas 



total 
spaclas 



braadlng andamlc 
spaclas spaclas 



total 
spaclas 



andamlc 
spaclas 



Turkey 
Turkmenisten 
United Areb Emirates 
former USSR 
Uzbakisten 



116 



25 

276 



1 



55 




418 



302 



67 






13 




102 
67 
37 

168 
51 



Viet Nam 
Yemen 



213 
66 



761 
366 



535 
143 



10 
8 



180 
77 



39 
31 



OCEANIA 



American Samoa 

Australia 

Cook Islands 

Fad. States Micronesia 

Fiji 



3 

252 





198 

3 
1 



50 
751 

50 
104 
109 



34 
649 
27 
40 
74 




355 

7 
17 
26 



11 
748 



25 





657 



2 
11 



French Polynesia 
Guam 
Kiribati 

Marshall Islands 
Nauru 



81 
79 
69 
75 
22 



60 
18 
26 
17 
9 



26 
2 

1 


1 



10 

11 



New Caledonia 

New Zealand 

Niue 

Northern Marianas 

Palau 



11 

10 

1 



287 
29 
88 

135 



107 

150 

15 

28 

45 



20 
76 



2 

10 



51 
40 
4 
11 
22 



38 

36 





1 



Papua New Guinea 
Pitcairn Islands 
Solomon Islands 
Tokelau 
Tonga 



214 



53 



1 



57 


19 





708 

26 

223 

15 
48 



644 

19 

163 

5 

37 



85 
5 

44 

2 



280 
5 

61 
7 
6 



81 


10 

1 



Tuvalu 

USA Pacific Islands 

Vanuatu 

Wallis & Futuna 

Western Samoa 



12 



27 



111 



60 



76 


9 


25 





40 


8 



20 



NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA 



Anguilla 

Antigua & Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas 

Barbados 



3 





61 


- 





11 


2 


7 





140 


49 





13 


4 


- 





172 


48 





10 


2 


12 


3 


>222 


88 


4 


35 


16 


6 





172 


24 





9 


3 


125 





533 


356 





107 


2 


3 





345 


8 


1 


1 


1 


193 


7 


578 


426 


3 


41 






Belize 

Bermuda 

Canada 



12 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphibians 


Amphibians 


Freshwater 


Flowering 


Conifers 


Ferns 


Higher 






Rshes 


Plants 


& Cycads 




Plants 


total 


endemic 


total 


total 


total 


total 


endemic 


species 


species 


species 


spades 


species 


species 


species 


18 


2 


>152 


8,472 


22 


85 


2,675 


2 





- 


- 




- 


- 


- 





S 






- 


- 


37 


2 


- 


22,000 




- 


- 


2 





- 








- 


80 


26 


- 


> 7,000 




- 


1,260 




1 


5 








135 










336 





135 


15 


205 


188 


216 


15,000 


90 


400 


14,074 










184 





100 


3 








- 


- 


- 


- 


293 


2 


2 


- 


1,307 


11 


310 


760 








- 


. 


. 


- 


560 








- 


330 


- 


- 


69 








- 


60 





- 


2 








- 


100 


1 


10 


5 








- 


50 





4 


1 








- 


3,017 


44 


261 


2,551 


3 


3 


29 


2,160 


22 


200 


1,942 








- 


150 





28 


1 




1 




1 


- 


250 


1 


64 


81 


197 


100 


282 


10,000 


- 




- 








- 


56 





20 


14 


17 


9 


- 


2,780 


22 


370 


30 








- 


26 





6 


- 








- 


360 


1 


102 


25 



870 
475 



150 

7 



321 
766 
460 
1,172 
542 








1 


33 


3 


43 





30 


10 


134 





20 


33 


65 



25 

lis 

3 



32 



41 



63 



2,750 

147 

2,920 



150 

IS 

147 



13 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Mammala 



Bird* 



Bird! Blrd> 



Reptllei 



Reptil** 



total 
tpoclat 



andemfc 
tpaclat 



total 
•pscl«i 



breeding endeinic 
species species 



NORTH «■ CENTRAL AMERICA continued 



Cayman Islands 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 
Dominica 
Dominican Republic 



8 

205 

31 

12 

20 




6 
12 
1 




180 
850 
342 
163 
254 



45 
600 
137 

52 

136 




7 
22 
2 




total 
species 



18 
214 
102 

14 
105 



endemic 
species 



6 

36 

80 

2 

22 



El Salvador 
Greenland (Denmark) 
Grenada 
Guadeloupe 
Guatemala 



135 

15 
11 

250 



420 

150 
134 
669 



251 
62 
50 
52 

458 



73 

16 

20 

231 



4 

1 
2 

20 



Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Martinique 
Mexico 



3 

173 

24 

9 
450 




1 
3 
1 
140 



220 
684 
262 
131 
1,026 



75 
422 
113 

52 
769 




1 

25 
1 

89 



102 

152 

36 

9 

687 



29 

12 

26 

3 

369 



Montserrat 
Netherlands Antilles 
Nicaragua 
Panama 
Puerto Rico 



200 

218 

16 







2 

14 

1 



111 
252 
750 
929 
239 



37 

77 

482 

732 

105 



1 


8 
12 



11 

18 

161 

226 

46 



2 

4 

6 

25 

28 



St Kitts-Navis 
St Lucia 
St Vincent 
Trinidad & Tobago 
Turks & Caicos Islands 



8 

100 



99 
169 
129 
433 
175 



32 

50 

108 

260 

42 



10 
17 
16 
70 
12 



USA 

Virgin Islands (British) 

Virgin Islands (US) 



428 
3 



101 





768 
199 
199 



650 
70 

70 



71 






280 
18 



72 
3 
3 



SOUTH AMERICA 



Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 
Colombia 



320 
316 
394 
91 
359 



47 
20 
96 
16 
28 



976 
1,274 
1,635 

448 
1,695 



1,492 
296 

1,721 



19 
16 
177 
15 
62 



220 
208 
468 
72 
584 



64 
17 

178 
33 

106 



Ecuador 
French Guiana 
Guyana 
Paraguay 
Peru 



302 
150 
193 
305 
344 



23 
2 
1 
2 

45 



1,559 
707 
737 
600 

1,678 



1,388 

678 

556 

1,538 



37 

1 





109 



374 
131 



120 
298 



114 

1 

2 

3 

95 



Suriname 
Uruguay 
Venezuela 



180 

81 

305 



2 
1 

16 



673 

365 

1,296 



603 
237 

1,308 







42 



151 




1 

57 



14 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphibian* 


Amphibians 


Freshwater 


Flowering 


Conifers 


FWns 


Higher 






Hshe* 


Plents 


& Cycads 




nanu 


total 


endemic 


total 


total 


total 


totel 


endemic 


apaclu 


•pecle* 


species 


species 


species 


species 


species 


1 





4 


518 


1 


19 


19 


162 


33 


130 


11,000 


9 


1.110 


950 


41 


36 


28 


6,004 


23 


495 


3,229 


2 








1,027 


1 


200 


11 


35 


15 


16 


5,000 


7 


650 


1,800 


23 





16 


2,500 


11 


400 


17 


- 





- 


497 


1 


31 


15 


3 








919 


1 


148 


4 


5 


2 





- 


1 


261 


26 


99 


26 


220 


8,000 


29 


652 


1,171 


46 


17 


16 


4,685 


7 


550 


1,623 


56 


9 


46 


5,000 


30 


850 


148 


21 


18 


6 


2,746 


4 


558 


923 


1 





1 




1 


259 


30 


285 


169 




25,000 


71 


1,000 


12,500 


2 








554 


- 


117 


2 


2 







- 


- 


- 


- 


59 


2 


50 


7,000 


14 


576 


40 


164 


20 


101 


9,000 


15 


900 


1,222 


19 


16 





2,128 


1 


364 


235 


1 


1 





533 





126 


1 


2 








909 


- 


119 


11 


3 








1,000 


1 


165 




26 


2 


76 


1,982 





277 


236 











440 


1 


7 


9 


233 


122 


822 


16,302 


125 


549 


4,036 


5 


1 







- 


- 




5 


1 













145 


37 


410 


9,000 


13 


359 


1,100 


112 


18 


389 


16,500 


17 


850 


4,000 


502 


296 




55,000 


15 


1,200 




41 


26 


44 


5,125 


17 


150 


2,698 


585 


131 




50,000 


20 


1,200 


1,500 


402 


138 


706 


18,250 


12 


1,100 


4,000 


89 


2 


- 


5,300 


5 


320 


144 


. 


10 


- 


6,000 


2 


407 


■ 


85 


4 


- 


7,500 


1 


350 


- 


315 


91 


- 


17,121 


24 


1,100 


5,356 


95 


7 


300 


4,700 


3 


315 


- 


. 


2 


- 


2,184 


1 


93 


40 


199 


76 


. 


20,000 


14 


1,059 


8,000 



15 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Mammals 



Birds 



Birds 



Raptllas 



Raptllas 





total 


endemic 


total 


breading 


andsmic 


total 


endemic 




apaclea 


apaclaa 


spacias 


spacias 


spacias 


spaciaa 


apaclaa 


AFRICA 
















Algeria 


92 


2 


375 


192 


1 


- 


3 


Angola 


276 


7 


909 


765 


13 


- 


18 


Benin 


188 





423 


307 





- 


1 


Botswana 


164 





550 


643 





157 


2 


Burkina Faso 


147 


1 


453 


335 





■ 


3 


Burundi 


107 





596 


451 





- 





Cameroon 


297 


13 


874 


690 


8 


- 


19 


Cape Verde 


5 





128 


38 


4 


12 


9 


Central African Republic 


209 


2 


662 


537 





- 





Chad 


134 


1 


532 


370 





- 


1 


Comoros 


12 


2 


91 


50 


9 


22 


7 


Congo 


200 


2 


569 


449 







1 


CAts d'lvoire 


230 


1 


694 


535 





- 


2 


Djibouti 







326 


126 


1 







Egypt 


102 


7 


439 


153 





83 


1 


Equatorial Guinea 


184 


3 


322 


273 


3 


- 


3 


Eritrea 


112 





537 


319 





- 





Ethiopia 


255 


31 


813 


626 


29 


- 


6 


Gabon 


190 


2 


629 


466 





- 


3 


Gambia 


108 





504 


280 





- 


1 


Ghana 


222 


1 


725 


529 


1 


- 


1 


Guinea 


190 


1 


552 


409 





- 


3 


Guinea-Bissau 


108 





319 


243 







2 


Kenya 


359 


21 


1,068 


844 


6 


187 


15 


Lesotho 


33 





281 


58 





- 


2 


Liberia 


193 


1 


581 


372 


1 


62 


2 


Libya 


76 


5 


323 


91 







1 


Madagascar 


105 


77 


253 


202 


103 


252 


198 


Malawi 


195 





645 


521 





124 


6 


Mali 


137 





622 


397 





16 


2 


Mauritania 


61 


1 


541 


273 







1 


Mauritius 


4 


2 


81 


27 


9 


11 


2 


Mayorte 


- 





- 


27 





15 


1 


Morocco 


105 


4 


416 


210 





- 


8 


Mozambique 


179 


1 


678 


498 





- 


5 


Namibia 


154 


3 


609 


469 


1 




26 


Niger 


131 





482 


299 










Nigeria 


274 


6 


862 


681 


2 


>135 


7 


Reunion 


2 





43 


IS 





2 


3 


Rwanda 


151 





666 


513 







1 


Saint Helena & depend. 


2 





915 


53 


8 








Sio Tom« St Prrncipe 


8 


2 


111 


63 


24 


16 


7 


Senegal 


155 


1 


610 


384 







1 


Seychelles 


- 


2 


170 


38 


11 


15 


14 



16 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphibians 


Amphibians 


Frashwatar 


Flowaring 


Conlfars 


Fwiw 


HIghar 






FIshas 


PlanU 


& Cyeads 




Plants 


total 


•ndamic 


total 


tout 


total 


total 


andamlc 


•pacl« 


spsclas 


spaclas 


spaclas 


spaclas 


spacia* 


spaclas 


- 







3,100 


18 


46 


250 


- 


23 


- 


5.000 


- 


185 


1,260 


- 





- 


2,000 


1 


200 


- 


38 


1 


92 


- 





15 


17 


- 







1,100 





- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


2,500 


- 


- 




- 


65 


- 


8,000 


3 


257 


156 








- 


740 





34 


86 


- 





- 


3,600 


2 


- 


100 









1,600 




- 


- 


- 





15 


660 


1 


60 


136 


- 


1 




4,350 


7 


- 


1,200 


- 


2 


- 


3,517 





143 


62 


- 





- 


635 


2 


4 


2 


6 





- 


2,066 


4 


6 


70 


- 


2 




3,000 





250 


66 


- 





- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


30 


- 


6,500 


3 


100 


1,000 


- 


4 




6,500 


1 


150 


- 


- 





79 


966 





8 


- 




4 


- 


3,600 


1 


124 


43 


- 


3 




3,000 





- 


88 


. 


1 


- 


1,000 





■ - 


12 


88 


10 


- 


6,000 


6 


500 


265 


- 


1 


8 


1,576 





15 


2 


38 


4 


. 


2,200 





- 


103 


- 





- 


1,800 


10 


15 


134 


144 


140 


40 


9,000 


5 


500 


6,500 


69 


1 




3,600 


4 


161 


49 


- 


1 




1,741 







11 







. 


1,100 





- 










- 


700 





178 


325 


- 





- 


- 


- 


- 




. 


2 


- 


3,600 


19 


56 


625 


62 


2 


- 


5,500 


9 


183 


219 


32 


2 


102 


3,128 


1 


45 


- 


. 







1,170 





8 


- 


>109 


1 


260 


4,614 


1 


100 


205 










750 





240 


165 


- 







2,288 


2 


- 


26 



12 



1 

11 



83 



50 

744 

2,062 

1,139 



24 

150 

24 



50 
134 

26 
182 



17 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Mammals 



Bird* 



Bird! Birds 



Rsptllas 



Raptilas 



AFRICA continued 



total 
spacias 



andemic 
spacias 



total 
spades 



braading andamic 
spacias spacias 



total 
spacias 



andamic 
spacias 



Sierra Leone 
Somalia 
Soutli Africa 
Sudan 
Swaziland 



147 
171 
247 
267 
47 




11 
27 

11 




622 
649 
790 
937 
485 



466 
422 
596 
680 
364 




10 
7 





193 
299 



102 
245 



149 
26 



1 
48 
81 



Tanzania 
Togo 
Tunisia 
Uganda 
Western Sahara 



322 
196 

78 
338 

32 



14 
1 
1 
6 

1 



1,005 
558 
356 
992 
162 



822 
391 
173 
830 
60 



19 


3 




56 
1 
1 
2 





Zaire 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 



415 
229 
270 



28 
3 

1 



1,096 
736 

648 



929 
605 
532 



22 

1 




153 



33 

2 
2 



ANTARCTICA 



Antarctica 

Falkland Islands 

French S. & Antarctic Terr. 



183 





1 








59 


3 








48 


1 









18 



Table 1 . Country species diversity 



Amphibian* 


Amphibian* 


Frathwater 


Flo waring 


ConHara 


Fam* 


HIghar 






FUhat 


PlanU 


& Cycad* 




Plants 


total 


andamic 


total 


total 


total 


total 


andamic 


•paclu 


apaciaa 


•paciaa 


•paclas 


apacia* 


•paclas 


•paclas 


- 


2 




2,090 





- 


74 


27 


3 




3,000 


2 


26 


500 


95 


36 


94 


23,000 


40 


380 




- 


2 




3,132 


5 


- 


50 


40 





40 


2,636 


8 


71 


4 


121 


40 




10,000 


8 




1,122 


- 


3 




2,000 


1 


200 


- 


- 







2,150 


10 


36 


- 


50 







291 


5,000 
330 


6 


400 


- 


. 


53 




11,000 


7 




1,100 


83 


1 




4,600 


1 


146 


211 


120 


3 


112 


4,200 


6 


234 


95 











41 





11 


11 








2 


146 





19 


14 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



19 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 2. Threatened Species 

Measures of species richness and endemism are some of the most straightforward ways of Indicating 
how important areas are for biodiversity. However, in order to try to maintain maximum biodiversity 
in the most efficient way possible, it is also important to know which aspects of it are under most 
immediate threat. This can be done In two ways. The first is to assess the status of individual species 
and try to determine the degree of threat they are under (ie. the likelihood of their going extinct in a 
given length of time). The second is to assess the status of particular areas and to draw inferences 
from this regarding the likelihood of extinction of the species or populations inhabiting that area. 

The first approach requires the accumulation of a large amount of information on the distribution, 
biology and status of the species concerned, followed by expert analysis to attempt to decide exactly 
how threatened the species might be. Often there is simply insufficient information to make anything 
other than an informed guess; where there is enough information, its collection and analysis is usually 
very time-consuming. This approach also implies continued monitoring of the status of individual 
species, this is also an expensive and often difficult process. For this reason, global analyses of 
threatened species status have only been carried out for a relatively few groups of organisms. The 
birds (Class Aves) form the only large higher taxon in which the conservation status of all member 
species has been assessed; the birds have now been subject to two such assessments. Only the 
mammals approach birds in this respect, but an estimated 45% of mammal species (mostly, among 
insectlvora, micro-bats and rodents) remain to be assessed. The number of invertebrates whose 
conservation status has been assessed at the species level is essentially zero in relation to estimates 
of the total number of invertebrate species (c 1 million), but certain higher taxa of insects (swallowtail 
butterflies, dragonflies) have been assessed quite comprehensively. 

An assessment of the conservation status of species is fundamental to setting priorities among 
possible management actions. Disregarding other factors that need to be considered in assigning 
priorities, those species regarded by lUCN as globally threatened are of major concern. At the country 
level, it is clearly desirable for conservation or management agencies to know which species regarded 
as globally threatened are endemic to the country in question because these agencies bear special 
responsibility for them. Threatened endemic species should be highest national priorities in terms of 
preventing loss of global biodiversity. 

The 1994 lUCN Red List of Threatened Animals includes 5,929 threatened species of which 3,175 
are vertebrates and 2,754 are invertebrates. Around 65% of threatened vertebrate species and 78% 
of threatened invertebrates are single-country endemics. Overall, 71% of globally-threatened animal 
species are endemic to a single country. This proportion of course reflects the extent to which the 
status of the world fauna has been assessed; it is in general easier to determine the status of species 
that are not widely distributed, and national lists of threatened species have been taken into account 
by WCMC in compilation of the current lUCN Red List. Nevertheless, other than an unknown number 
of threatened species whose demise may be inevitable and a result of natural intrinsic factors, the 
security of the majority of species now known to be threatened could be assured if all countries were 
able to manage their own biological resources in accordance with the aims of the Convention on 
Biological Diversity. 

NOTES TO TABLE 2 

The table below contains information country by country on the number of species present that are currently regarded by 
lUCN/SSC (and BirdLife International in the case of birds! as threatened at the global level. 



Key: 



Indicates lack of data. 

For Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the estimate for fishes does not include a large number of cichlids in Lake Victoria 

for which we have insufficient data on the country range of individual species. A total of 250 haplochromine and 2 

tilapiine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria is given in the 1 990 Red List, but recent estimates suggest > 300 haplochromine 

species are present of which some 200 may be critically threatened. 

The figure for invertebrates does not include 62 earthworms of the genera Microscolex and Udeina which occur in 

Lesotho and South Africa but for which we have insufficient data on the range of individual species. 



20 



Table 2. Threatened species 

' The invertebrate total does not include species of the insect genera Itodacnus and Oodemus for which we lack data 

on the number of recognised species. 

Data for mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and invertebrates are from the animals sector of the species database at WCMC, 
from which the lUCN Red List is produced. The status category designations and some other data are derived from the 
lUCN/SSC Specialist Group network. Except for birds the data tabulated reflect the 1994 lUCN Red List of Threatened Animals 
(Groombridge, ed., 1 993). New data on the status of birds, to appear in the revised world list of threatened birds (Collar etal., 
1 994), were most generously made available by BirdLife International in advance of publication. Widespread marine cetaceans 
lacking full country-specific range data are excluded. The table covers animal taxa of species rank only, but among plants a 
number of subspecies are included. The plant information is derived from the plants sector of the WCMC species database; these 
data are provisional only, and will shortly be superseded by the forthcoming world Red List of threatened plants (expected 
1995). 

Except for birds, the species counted are those that have been assessed and found to meet one of the standard lUCN status 
categories indicating threatened status. Birds have been categorised by BirdLife International using a version of the revised 
categories and criteria developed by lUCN/SSC. This revised system has not yet been formally approved by lUCN Council; the 
penultimate draft is presented by Mace and Stuart (1 994). Other species have been categorised according to the existing lUCN 
category system (outline definitions given below). The new revised lUCN system and the version used by BirdLife International 
do not have an Insufficiently Known ('K') category. In order make information on non-birds more closely comparable with that 
for birds, K species among the former have been excluded; only species categorised as Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare or 
Indeterminate have been counted. 

lUCN Threatened Species Categories (non-revised version) 

E - ENDANGERED 

Taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. Included are taxa 
whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are 
deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. Also included are taxa that may be extinct but have definitely been 
seen in the wild in the past 50 years. 

V - VULNERABLE 

Taxa believed likely to move into the 'Endangered' category in the near future if the causal factors continue operating. 
Included are taxa of which most or all the populations are decreasing because of over-exploitation, extensive 
destruction of habitat or other environmental disturbance; taxa with populations that have been seriously depleted and 
whose ultimate security has not yet been assured; and taxa with populations that are still abundant but are under 
threat from severe adverse factors throughout their range. 

R - RARE 

Taxa with small world populations that are not at present 'Endangered' or 'Vulnerable', but are at risk. These taxa are 
usually localised within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range. 

I - INDETERMINATE 

Taxa known to be 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable' or 'Rare' but where there Is not enough information to say which of the 
three categories is appropriate. 

K - INSUFFICIENTLY KNOWN 

Taxa that are suspected but not definitely known to belong to any of the above categories, because of lack of 
Information. 



21 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 2. Threatened species 



EUROPE 



Mammals 



Birds 



Reptltas 



Amphibians 



Hshss 



inverts. 



Albania 
Andorra 
Austria 
Belarus 
Belgium 



8 

2 

62 

19 
29 



50 



22 



3 



Bosnia & Herzegovina 

Bulgaria 

Croatia 

Czech Republic 

former Czechoslovakia 



2 

11 
4 
5 
6 



24 



32 

1 





94 



83 



Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 



19 
16 
25 
92 
57 



6 

2 

11 

117 

16 



Gibraltar 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 




17 

1 
1 
2 



2 
17 
37 

1 



3 

539 

24 

1 

9 



Italy 

Latvia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 



45 

20 

8 

21 
10 



273 

1 

2 



Macedonia 

Malta 

Moldova 

Monaco 

Netherlands 



6 

18 



21 



14 
1 

1 



Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Romania 
San Marino 



3 
S 

7 
11 



19 
37 
83 
29 



20 
27 

240 

122 





Slovakia 

Slovenia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 



4 

3 

10 

4 
3 



2 

13 
2 
3 



33 

82 
32 
44 



11 

896 

19 

9 



Ukraine 

United Kingdom 
former Yugoslavia 



10 
2 
8 



28 
18 
34 



16 
28 

149 



Afghanistan 
Armenia 



12 
5 



2 

13 



22 



Table 2. Threatened species 



Mammalt Birds Raptllat Amphibians FIshas Inverts. Plants 

ASIA continued 

Azerbaijan 3 6 1 12 1 

Bahrain 12 10 

Bangladesh 16 28 17 24 

Bhutan 18 12 1 3 20 

BIOT 2 1 

Brunei 9 14 3 1 1 27 

Cambodia 19 18 7 4 7 

China 42 86 8 1 16 13 343 

Cyprus 2 4 3 49 

Georgia 3 5 5 1 15 1 

Hong Kong 13 1 5 

India 40 71 21 3 2 18 1,256 

Indonesia 57 104 16 65 59 281 

Iran 9 12 6 2 8 1 

Iraq 4 11 2 6 2 

Israel 7 8 4 5 38 

Japan 17 31 10 11 10 67 704 

Jordan 8 4 4 10 

Kazakhstan 9 14 1 17 

Korea, D.P.R. 7 16 7 

Korea, Republic 6 19 69 

Kuwait 2 3 2 

Kyrgyzstan 4 5 13 1 

Laos 25 23 3 3 5 

Lebanon 5 5 1 3 4 

Malaysia 20 31 10 4 16 510 

Maldives 12 1 

Mongolia 8 11 6 1 

Myanmar 20 43 1 1 1 8 29 

Nepal 23 23 8 2 21 

Oman 5 5 4 2 1 4 

Pakistan 10 22 7 1 12 

Philippines 22 86 8 2 21 27 371 

Qatar 12 Q 

Russia 17 35 3 4 35 127 

Saudi Arabia 6 10 2 6 6 

Singapore 3 6 1 3 14 

Sri Lanka 4 11 9 19 4 436 

Syria 4 6 1 6 10 

Taiwan 6 12 2 1 6 95 

Tajikistan 6 9 3 

Thailand 22 44 11 11 5 382 

Turkey 4 13 10 3 18 18 1,827 

Turkmenistan 8 9° 

o ,1 5 O 

United Arab Emirates 2 4 ^ >;; Y 

. - 1 - 
former USSR 

Uzbekistan 7 11 3 5 



23 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 2. Threatened species 





Mammals 


Birds 


Reptiles 


Amphibians 


Fishea 


inverts. 


Plant* 


ASIA continued 
















Viet Nam 


25 


45 


8 


1 


2 


3 


350 


Yemen 


4 


12 


2 








1 


149 


OCEANIA 
















American Samoa 


2 


1 


2 








7 


8 


Australia 


43 


51 


42 


20 


54 


372 


1,597 


Cook Islands 





6 


2 











12 


Fad. States of Micronesia 


5 


5 


2 








59 


3 


Fiji 


4 


8 


6 








4 


72 


French Polynesia 





20 


2 








13 


63 


Guam 


3 


2 


2 








55 


17 


Kiribati 





2 


2 








3 





Marshall Islands 





1 


2 








5 





Nauru 





1 

















New Caledonia 


4 


10 


4 








9 


193 


New Zealand 


3 


45 


12 


3 


6 


46 


236 


Nius 





1 


1 














Northern Marianas 


2 


6 


2 








15 


8 


Palau 


3 


2 


3 








60 





Papua New Guinea 


33 


31 


7 





49 


23 


95 


Pitcairn Islands 





5 











2 


7 


Solomon Islands 


5 


18 


6 








10 


43 


Tokelau 





1 


2 








1 





Tonga 





2 


3 








3 





Tuvalu 





1 


2 








4 





USA Pacific Is 








1 














Vanuatu 


4 


6 


3 








4 


23 


Wallis & Futuna 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 





Western Samoa 


2 


6 


2 








3 


20 


NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 


Anguilla 








5 











3 


Antigua & Barbuda 





1 


5 











2 


Aruba 





1 


2 








1 





Bahamas 


3 


3 


6 





1 


1 


27 


Barbados 





1 


2 











3 


Belize 


5 


1 


5 








1 


41 


Bermuda 





2 











1 


8 


Canada 


6 


5 








20 


12 


649 


Cayman Islands 





1 


2 











12 


Costa Rica 


8 


10 


7 


1 





10 


456 


Cuba 


10 


13 


8 








5 


811 


Dominica 





2 


4 











56 


Dominican Republic 


3 


10 


8 


1 





7 


73 


El Salvador 


2 





6 








1 


35 


Greenland 


2 


1 


















24 



Table 2. Threatened species 



Mammals 
NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA continued 



Bird* 



Reptllai 



Amphibians 



FIshas 



Grenada 

Guadeloupe 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 



1 


4 

10 
4 



Plants 



5 
21 

315 
28 
55 



Jamaica 
Martinique 
Mexico 
Montserrat 
Netherlands Antilles 



2 



24 







7 
2 
34 

1 



10 
5 

18 
5 
6 





98 





7 

32 





371 

42 

1,048 

1 

1 



Nicaragua 
Panama 
Puerto Rico 
Saint Kitts-Nevis 
Saint Lucia 



6 

11 

1 







78 

561 

84 

3 

9 



Saint Vincent 

Trinidad !> Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 

USA' 

Virgin Islands (British) 





1 



22 





2 
2 
2 
46 
2 



4 
5 
4 
23 
5 






16 
1 






174 






1 



860' 





8 

16 

2 

1,845 
5 



Virgin Islands (US> 



8 



SOUTH AMERICA 



Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 



20 
21 
45 
11 
24 



40 
27 
103 
15 
62 



6 

4 

10 

18 

12 



5 

1 
20 




1 
1 
8 
27 
3 



2 

14 





170 
49 
463 
292 
376 



Ecuador 
French Guiana 
Guyana 
Paraguay 
Peru 



20 
6 
7 
8 

29 



50 

2 

1 

22 

60 



12 
6 

7 
3 

7 



30 



1 



375 
36 
47 
12 

377 



Suriname 
Uruguay 
Venezuela 



6 

4 
12 



1 

9 

22 



5 


10 



48 

11 

107 



AFRICA 



Algeria 
Angola 
Benin 
Botswana 
Burkina faso 



11 


7 








1 


5 


145 


16 


13 


5 








3 


25 


7 


1 


2 








1 


3 


8 


5 














4 


6 


1 


1 














6 


5 











1 


1 


21 


14 


3 


1 


20 


3 


74 





3 


3 











1 


9 


2 


1 








1 






Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Central African Republic 



25 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 2. Threatened species 



Birds 



Reptiles 



Amphibians 



AFRICA continued 



Inverts. 



Chad 
Comoros 
Congo 
Cdte d'lvoire 
Djibouti 



13 

3 

13 

16 

3 



3 
6 
3 

11 
3 



12 
3 

3 

66 

2 



Egypt 

Equatorial Guinea 
Eritrea 
Ethiopia 
Gabon 



7 
12 

3 
21 
12 



10 
4 
3 

17 
4 



84 
9 



153 
78 



Gambia 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 

Kenya^ 

Lesotho^ 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Malawi 



3 
12 
13 

S 
16 



1 
7 

11 
1 

22 




32 

35 


158 



2 
13 

8 
33" 

6 



3 
13 

2 
28 

9 



1 
3 
2 
10 




1 





10 





2 



IB 

2 



7 

1 

57 

189 

61 



Mali 

Mauritania 

Mauritius 

Mayotte 

Morocco 



12 

10 

3 



7 



5 
3 
9 
2 
11 






19 

6 



14 
3 

222 


195 



Mozambique 

Namibia 
Niger 
Nigeria 
Reunion 



9 
12 
10 
22 





13 
6 
2 
8 
3 



3 


1 

1 

21 



92 

23 



9 

86 



Rwanda 

Saint Helena & depend. 

Sao Tomd & Principe 

Senegal 

Seychelles 



14 

1 
9 
1 




57 

1 
32 
80 



Sierra Leone 
Somalia 
South Africa^ 
Sudan 
Swaziland 



12 
12 
25 

16 
4 



12 
8 

16 
9 
4 



3 
2 
36 
2 
2 






16 


1 





1 

34 





12 
57 

953 

8 

41 



Tanzania' 
Togo 
Tunisia 
Uganda' 
Western Sahara 



16 
8 
5 

15 
4 



30 
1 
6 

10 
3 



11 
1 
3 
2 




406 



24 



Zaire 
Zambia 



23 

7 



26 

10 



26 



Table 2. Threatened species 



Mamnwl* 



AFRICA continued 



Zimbabwe 



Birds Reptiles Amphibian* FIthet Inverts. 



Plants 



94 



ANTARCTICA 



Falkland Islands 

French S & Antarctic Terr. 



27 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 3. National Red Data Books 

Given that a central goal of national biodiversity conservation is maintenance of maximum species 
diversity, one important task is to assess which elements of the national flora and fauna are most at 
risk of extinction. 

Until quite recently only a small number of countries had produced a national assessment of species 
status. This activity has been largely restricted to developed countries; in general, these countries are 
relatively low in diversity, have well-inventoried floras and faunas, and have the required infrastructure. 
Most publications have been patterned after the lUCN global Red Data Books and Red Lists. Now a 
growing number of less developed countries have undertaken this task, and more may be expected 
to do so within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity. By virtue of monitoring 
programmes, several countries have produced revised editions of their earlier Red Data Books. 

Some countries have adapted existing lUCN status categories to their own national use. The revised 
system (Mace and Stuart, 1994) is explicitly designed to be applied at the global scale and to wild 
populations within their natural range (and to benign introductions); it is recommended that application 
of the global system at regional or national scale should include consideration information on the global 
status and the proportion of the species that occurs within the larger-scale unit. 

The table below indicates for which countries an authoritative published listing of threatened species, 
or compilation of information in the standard 'Red Data Book' format, is available, and which groups 
of organisms are assessed. The intention is to show in general terms where efforts have been made 
toward assessment of the status of species at the national, as opposed to global, level. This is shown 
graphically in Figure 3; this reflects the data collated in Table 3. A small number of national listings 
are based initially on the global lUCN list rather than an independent national assessment. 

We give below partial citations for the Red Data Books and lists we are currently aware of that have 
been published during the past decade (since and including 1985), and for one or two that are in 
advanced preparation. 

NOTES TO TABLE 3 

This table indicates for which countries an authoritative published listing of threatened species, or compilation of information 
in the standard 'Red Data Book' format, is available, and which groups of organisms are assessed. The table reflects the current 
state of a review not yet completed, and should be taken as indicative only, not fully comprehensive. Full bibliographic details 
are expected to be disseminated at a later date. 

Key: 

Indicates lack of data. 
• Species within group indicated have appeared in a national Red Data Book or equivalent. Note that this does not 

necessarily mean than all species of that group present in the country have been assessed, nor that all parts of the 

country have been covered. 
7 Indicates that we have reason to believe the group is represented in a national Red Data Book but that we have not 

examined the publication, 
p Document in advanced draft 

Some publications are prepared or sponsored by an official government body or other authoritative organisation within the 
country, others are prepared by non-governmental organisations, with or without any official backing or endorsement, and others 
are made by individual researchers. We have not attempted to collate details of all listings published or prepared by individual 
researchers. A few documents not yet formally published have been taken into account. It has not always been possible to 
distinguish between kinds of source, particularly if the document in question has not been examined. We have not attempted 
to include all works covering single higher taxa unless part of a series having the aim of covering all major groups. Some 
countries appear not to have published an official Red Data Book, but nonetheless have appropriate assessments and monitoring 
programmes in place. We have not traced a Red Data Book for Russia; however, it made up the greater part of the former USSR 
and is covered in the Red Data Book volumes for that region. 



28 



Table 3. National Red Data Books 

Major national Red Data Books since 1985 

EUROPE 

Austria: Gepp, 1994; Niklfeld, 1986. Belarus: Parfenov et a/., 1987 Bulgaria: Botev, & Peshev, 1985; Mel'nik, 1987. former 
Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic: Barus, et al., 1988; Sedlacek, et al., 1988; Skapec, et al., 1992. Denmark: Ingelog et al., 
1993; Lojtnant, 1985; Lojtnant & Gregersen, 1986. Estonia: Ingelog etal., 1993. Rnland: Anon. 1986; Forsman ef a/., 1936; 
Ingelog etal., 1993; Koistinen etal.. 1986. Germany: Ingelog etal., 1993; Nowak, 1989. Greece: Karandinos, 1992. Iceland: 
Einarsson, 1988. Ireland: Curtis & McGoueh, 1988; Whilde, 1993. Italy: Conti etal., 1992. Latvia: Andrusaitis, 1985; Ingelog 
etal., 1993. Liechtenstein: Broggi & Willi, 1985. Lithuania: Ingelog et al., 1993; Lapele & Vaiciunaite, 1992; Parfenov etal., 
1987. Luxembourg: Weiss, 1988. Malta: Schembri & Sultana, 1989. Moldova: Gania, 1989. Netherlands: Weeda etal., 1990. 
Norway: Anon. 1 988; Kramme & Hagvar, 1 985. Poland: Glowacinski, 1 992a; Glowacinski, 1 992b; Ingelog etal., 1 993; Zarzycki 
& Wojewoda, 1987. Portugal: Anon. 1991c; Anon. 1991d; Dray, 1985. Russia: Ingelog etal., 1993. Slovenia: Vidic, 1992. 
Spain: Blanco & Gonzalez, 1992; Gomez-Campo, 1987; ICONA. 1986. Sweden: Ahlen & Tjernberg, 1988; Ahlen & Tjernberg, 
1992; Ehnstrom & Wald6n, 1986; Ingelog et al., 1993. Switzerland: Duelli, 1994; Landolt, 1992; Landolt, 1991. United 
Kingdom: Batten etal., 1990; Bratton, 1991; Morris, 1994; Shirt, 1987. 

ASIA 

Armenia: Kazarian, 1 989; Movsesian, 1 987. China: Fu Li-Kuo & Jin Jiang-ming, 1 992; National Environment Protection Agency, 
1994. India: Nayar & Sastry, 1987. Japan: Anon, 1991e. Kazakhstan: Baitenov, 1985; Kovshar, & Bekenov, 1985. Sri Lanka: 
Abeywickreme, 1987. Taiwan: Severinghaus & Liu, 1990. Tajikistan: Abdusaliamov, 1988. Thailand: Ecological Research 
Department, TISTR. 1991 . Turkey: Anon, 1991a. Turkmenistan: Babaev, 1985. Viet Nam: Ministry of Science, Technology and 
Environment, 1992. 

NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA 

Canada: Argus & Pryer, 1 990; COSEWIC, 1 994; Lowe, 1 990; Moseley, 1 992. Guadeloupe: Benito-Espinal & Hautcastel, 1 988. 
Guatemala: Anon, 1994. (NB. not shown in Fig. 3); Martinique: Benito-Espinal & Hautcastel, 1988. Mexico: Flores-Villela & 
Gerez, 1988. United States: Anon. 1992; Lowe, 1990; Moseley, 1992. 

SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina: Benonatti & Gonzalez, 1993; Chebez, 1994. Brazil: Bernardes etal., 1990; da Fonseca et al., 1994. Chile: Glade, 

1 993; Ivan Benoit, 1 989. French Guiana: Thiollay, 1 988. Peru: Pulido, 1 991 . Venezuela: Rodriguez & Rojas-Suarez, (in prep). 

OCEANIA 

Australia: Anon, 1991b; Briggs & Leigh, 1988; Cogger eta/., 1993; Garnett, 1992; Jackson & Wager, 1993; Kennedy, 1992. 
French Polynesia: Thibault, 1988. New Caledonia: Hannecart, 1988. New Zealand: Bell, 1986; Given etal., 1987. Wallis and 
Futuna Islands: Guyot & Thibault, 1988. 

AFRICA 

Mauritius: Strahm, 1989. Mayotta: Louette, 1988. Reunion: Barre, 1988; Dupont efa/., 1989. South Africa: Branch, 1988; Hall 

& Veldhuis, 1985; Henning & Henning, 1989; Skeiton, 1987; Smithers, 1986. 



29 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 3. National R ed Data Books 

Mammals Birds Amphibians Fishes Inverts. Plants 

& Reptiles 

EUROPE 

Albania - - " ' " 

Andorra - • ' * " 

Austria •••••• 

Belarus . _ . - - e 

Belgium • • • • • • 

Bosnia fit Herzegovina - - ■ ■ ' 

Bulgaria •••••• 

Croatia , - . - - 

Czech Republic • • • • • • 

former Czechoslovakia . . - " ' * . 

Denmark ,,.••• 

Estonia •••--• 

Finland ,.•••• 

France ,»•••• 

Germany • • • • • • 

Gibraltar . - - - - 

Greece • • • • - • 

Hungary - • p • • 

Iceland ... . - • 

Ireland • • • • - • 

Italy • • • . . • 

Latvia • • • T ?• • 

Liechtenstein - • . - - • 

Lithuania • • • T ?• • 

Luxembourg • • • . • • 

Macedonia ... . - 

Malta •••••• 

Moldova . • . _ . • 

Monaco -._.-- 

Netherlands • • • - • 

Norw/ay • • • - • • 

Poland •••••• 

Portugal • • • • - • 

Romania - • . - . # 

San Marino - - " - 

Slovakia • • • • - • 

Slovenia •••••• 

Spain •••••• 

Sweden • • • • - • 

Switzerland • • • • • • 

Ukraine •••••• 

United Kingdom ••-••• 

former Yugoslavia ... - . # 



Afghanistan 



30 



Table 3. National Red Data Books 



ASIA continued 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Bhutan 

BIOT 

Brunei 

Cambodia 

China 

Cyprus 

Georgia 
Hong Kong 
India 

Indonesia 
Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Kazakhstan 

Korea, D.P.R. 
Korea, Republic 
Kuwait 
Kyrgyzstan 
Laos 

Lebanon 
Malaysia 
Maldives 
Mongolia 
Myanmar 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 

Russia 
Saudi Arabia 
Singapore 
Sri Lanka 
Syria 

Taiwan 

Tajikistan 
Thailand 
Turkey 
Turkmenistan 



Birds Amphibians 

& Reptiles 



? • 



Rshas Inverts. 



Plants 



?• 



?• 



?• 



P • 
7 • 



? • 



7 • 



7« 



31 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 3. National Red Data Books 



ASIA continued 



United Arab Emirates 
former USSR 
Uzbekistan 
Viet Nam 

Yemen 



Birds 



Amphibians 
& Reptiles 



Plants 



? • 



?• 



7 • 



OCEANIA 



American Samoa 

Australia 

Cook islands 

Fed. States of Micronesia 

Fiji 



French Polynesia 
Guam 
Kiribati 

Marshall Islands 
Nauru 



New Caledonia 

New Zealand 

Niue 

Northern Marianas 

Patau 



Papua New Guinea 
Pitcairn Islands 
Solomon Islands 
Toketau 
Tonga 



Tuvalu 

USA Pacific Islands 

Vanuatu 

Wallis & Futuna 
Western Samoa 



NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA 

Anguilla 

Antigua & Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas 

Barbados 

Belize 
Bermuda 
Canada 

Cayman Islands 
Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Dominica 



32 



Table 3. National Red Data Books 



Mammals 



Birds 



Amphibians 
& Reptiles 



Inverts. 



Plants 



NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA continued 



Dominican Republic 

El Salvador 
Greenland 
Grenada 
Guadeloupe 



Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Martinique 



Mexico 

Montserrat 
Netherlands Antilles 
Nicaragua 
Panama 



Puerto Rico 
Saint Kitts-Nevts 
Saint Lucia 
Saint Vincent 
Trinidad and Tobago 



Turks & Catcos Islands 

USA 

Virgin Islands (British) 

Virgin Islands (US) 

SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 
French Guiana 
Guyana 
Paraguay 
Peru 

Suriname 
Uruguay 
Venezuela 



AFRICA 

Algeria 
Angola 
Benin 
Botswana 
Burkina faso 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 
Table 3. National Red Data Books 



Amphibians Fishes rnvarts. Plants 

& Reptiles 



AFRICA continued 



Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Central African Republic 

Chad 



Comoros 
Congo 

Cdte d'lvoire 
Djibouti 
Egypt 



Equatorial Guinea 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia 



Ghana 

Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 

Kenya 

Lesotho 



Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Malawi 
Mali 



Mauritania 

Mauritius 

Mayotte 

Morocco 

Mozambique 



Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Reunion 

Rwanda 



Saint Helena & depend. 

Sao Tomd & Prrncipe 

Senegal 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 
South Africa 
Sudan 
Swaziland 
Tanzania 

Togo 



34 



Table 3. National Red Data Books 



Mammals Birds Amphibians Fishes Inverts. Plants 

& Reptiles 



AFRICA continued 

Tunisia 
Uganda 

Western Sahara 
Zaire 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 



35 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 4. Major food crops 

Plants are used as sources of medicinal products, timber and as ornamentals; their products figure in 
a very wide variety of manufacturing processes; fuelwood provides a source of energy for rural 
communities. Most fundamentally, plants are the basis of world food supply, either for direct human 
consumption or as livestock feed. 

Wild plants began to be modified into crops for agricultural production, probably independently in 
different continents, between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago; the later part of this period also saw the 
appearance of domestic animal populations. The earliest evidence is from Mesopotamia (Iraq-Syria), 
where wheat, barley and lentils are first recorded; others crops originated in China, where millets were 
domesticated; in Mexico, where maize, beans, peppers and squashes were developed as crops; and 
in Andean South America, which remains a centre of potato diversity. Crop plant populations have 
further diversified by crossing with wild relatives (accidentally or by human design), by introduction 
to new environments and different continents, and by generations of artificial selection by farming 
communities, and latterly by commercial crop development interests. 

Of the more than 250,000 flowering plant species, around 200 have been domesticated as food 
plants, of which 25-30 are crops of major world importance, judged largely by global production and 
economic criteria. When non-aggregated national data, as collated by FAO (FAO, 1 984), are examined, 
it is clear that a much wider spectrum of plant diversity provides the basis of world food supply 
(Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen, 1 990); the table below includes data on more than 1 00 species that 
appear of particular significance at this level. Within this group, the families Graminae (grasses) and 
Leguminosae (legumes) are most important, followed by Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Umbelliferae, 
Solanaceae and Labiatae. Because much crop production, eg. from home gardens, is not covered In 
national-level statistics, and several countries were not covered in the FAO (1984) database, more 
detailed review would doubtless demonstrate that many more than these 100 species are important 
at national level (Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen, 1990). 

Crop genetic resources are comprised of existing crop plants, often including a variety of locally 
adapted populations, together with the wild species from which they were derived, and wild species 
closely related to the latter. Crop relatives have often been used as a source of genetic material to 
confer disease or pest resistance or other properties on existing crops, but this, or other kinds of 
genetic improvement, cannot be done efficiently unless key elements in the total pool of crop genetic 
resources have been identified, located, documented and collected in a form allowing genetic material 
to be used. The importance of these activities is heightened by the extent to which genetic diversity 
is being eroded, both by the global adoption of genetically uniform commercial varieties and by 
modifications to the habitat of crop relatives with consequent loss of populations. Many national 
organisations are now active in this field, and the network of International Agricultural Research 
Centres (lARCs) play an international coordinating role. Among the lARCs, the International Plant 
Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, formerly IBPGR) is involved in setting of priorities for research and 
Inventory, and in furthering development of a network of national and regional centres for plant 
germplasm conservation. 

NOTES TO TABLE 4 

This table presents data on principal food crops and closely related wild species. The intention is to integrate data on uses and 
diversity of the former with information on the status and distribution of the latter. Part of the table based on data in Prescott- 
Allen and Prescott-Allen (1990) and Simmonds (1976) was included in material assembled by Sara Oldfield for WCMC (1992). 

We are especially grateful to IPGRI who provided information on number of accessions per country for each crop species in this 
table (as reported to the IPGRI database, current at 27 September 1994), in particular to Tom Hazekamp who generated and 
transferred this large datafile. We also thank J.G. Hawkes for information on the status of wild potato species, and Oswaldo 
T6lles Vald6s for similar data on Dioscorea. 

Column 2, Production, Area: upper figure is the volume of production, lower figure (In italics) where present is the area of land 
on which that production is based, as reported in FAO (1990). FAO Production Yearbook, Vol. 46. 



36 



Table 4. Major food crops 

Column 3, Origin of species: notes mainly on the documented or suspected geographic origin of the crop, based on Simmonds 
(1976), Mabberley (1990), Smith era/., (1992). 

Column 4, Major germplasm collections: number of accessions of crop in the ten countries with the largest collections as 
reported through the IPGRI network: for some crops fewer than ten countries have reported collections. These data, produced 
from the IPGRI database on 27 September 1994, do not cover all collections in the world because not all supply data to IPGRI. 

Column 5, Number of species in genus: approximate number of congeneric wild species, data mainly from Mabberley (1990) 
and, indicated by ', from Smith et al., (1992). 

Column 6, Species status: Information from the WCMC species (threatened plants) database. Letters in the left of this column 
represent the lUCN status categories (see Notes to Table 2, above, for definition of categories); the numbers to the right of this 
column indicate the number of congeneric species in each category. These numbers cover only those species that have been 
reviewed and categorised as non-threatened (nt) or in one of the threatened categories. 

Column 7, Distribution of genus: generalised world distribution, data from Mabberley (1990) and Smith et al., (1992). 

Column 8, Other species in genus used: data from Mabberley (1990) and, indicated by ', Smith era/., (1992). 

Column 9. Conservation notes: largely reproduced from Table 25.1 in WCMC (1992), data compiled by Sara Oldfield from 
multiple sources. This column also includes data on the documented presence of certain crops in Biosphere Reserves, collated 
for WCMC (1 992) by G.B. Ingram from material on file at Man and Biosphere office, UNESCO. Although this review is not fully 
comprehensive, it serves to stress the small number of crop species for which data on presence in protected areas are available. 



37 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 
Table 4. Major food crops 

Production 

(thousand mt) 

Area 

(thousand ha} 



Famity 
Spacies 



Origin of specias 



Major gernrH)lasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Anacardiaceae 



Mangifera indica 
Mango 



16.987 



NE India, the majority of fruit-bearing 
trees are more or less wild. 



India 1,100: Brazil 823: USA 461: Cuba 
350; Philippines 343; Thailand 294; 
Indonesia 292; Taiwan 176; Mexico 143; Fiji 
143. Major collections also: Bangladesh, 
Malaysia, Portugal, Venezuela. 



Pistacia vera 

Pistachio 



288 Native to the Near East and western 
Asia, cultivated in the Mediterranean 
and western Asia for 3,000-4,000 
years. 



Mexico 77; Australia 51; USA 48; Spain 45; 
Iran 40; Syria 25; Italy 13; Israel 10; Turkey 
10 



Co/ocasia esculenta 

Taro 



5,607 
993 



Papua New Guinea 747; India 650; USA 
468; Philippines 380; Solomon Islands 267; 
Viet Nam 210; Australia 193; Bangladesh 
130; Japan 120; Indonesia 82 



Xanthostoma sag'ntifolium 

Yautia 



A tropical American plant developed by 
Amerindian people. 



Nicaragua 71; Trinidad & Tobago 52; Cuba 
15; Nigeria 14; Costa Rica 11; Papua New 
Guinea 11; Guadeloupe 10 



Aquifoliaceae 



Ilex paraguanensis 
Mate 



Native to S Brazil, Paraguay and N. 
Argentina, cultivated throughout its 
natural range. Leaves are also still 
collected from wild plants. 



Betulaceae 


Corylus avellana 
Hazel 


700 
(hazel & filbert) 


Europe and SW Asia. Domesticated in 
the 17th century. 


Italy 2,456; Spain 124; France 88; USA 70; 
UK 43; Turkey 42; Portugal 32; Australia 23 


Corylus maxima 
Filbert 




SE Europe and W Asia. 


Argentina 35; Norway 12 


Bromeliaceae 



Ananas comosus 
Pineapple 



10,490 



Thought to be a lowland South 

American domesticate. 



Brazil 260; C6te d'tvoire 119; Japan 98; 
Nigeria 84; India 58; USA 58; Malaysia 54; 
Taiwan 53; Indonesia 48; Australia 50 



Camelliacaae 



Camellia sinensis 
Tea 



2,473 
2, 53 J 



Probably the lower Tibetan mountains 
or Central Asia. 



Viet Nam 70; Iran 50; South Africa 28 



Caricaceae 



Carica papaya 
Papaya 



3,929 Lowlands of eastern Central America. 



Philippines 301; India 252; Brazil 208; 
Nigeria 180; Peru 171; France 41; Colombia 
40; Malaysia 35; Mexico 29; Cuba 20. Major 
collection also in USA (Hawaii). 



Chenopodiaceae 



fie fa vulgaris 
Sugar Beet 



279,991 
8.293 



Europe, developed as a crop for sugar 

in the 1 8th century. 



Germany 3,993; USA 2,178; France 1,572; 
Japan 1,387; Russia 600; UK 588; Czech 
Republic 483; Greece 436; Spain 358; 
Romania 230 



38 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Species 

•pecias status 

in genus 



Distribution of genus 



Other species in genus used 



Conservation notes 



35 

(40-60)' 



E 

V 

R 

I 

nt 



Indomalaysia. 



Fruits of >12 wild spp. collected. 
Also cultivated: M. pajang (Borneo), 
M. caesia (W. Malaysia) M. foetida, 
M. odorata, M. fagenifera, 
M. z0y/anica\ 



Wild species of mango are threatened in 
Southeast Asia as a result of deforestation 
and replacement by commercial species. 
WWF is funding conservation of wild fruit 
trees in Peninsular Malaysia. 



R 2 Mediterranean (3 spp. in 

nt 1 Europe), Asiatic, 

Melanesian. S. U.S.A. and 

C. America. 



Other spp. have a variety of uses. 



Many wild populations have been destroyed 
by forest clearance, over-cutting for 
charcoal and grazing. 

Biosphere Reserves: El Kala (Algeria), Gano 
(Iran), Circeo (Italy). 



Tropical Asia. 



Also ornamental. 



Collection, preservation and research are 
needed for aroid cultivars. More than 1,000 
cultivars of Colocasia exist as a result of 
efforts by subsistence farmers. 



Tropical America. 



X. lindenii, X. nigrum are also eaten. 



c400 



Ex 


1 


Ex/E 


1 


E 


3 


V 


6 


R 


11 



Cosmopolitan, especially 
tropical and temperate 
Americas and Asia. 



Also ornamental, some timber. Other 
spp. drunic as stimulants include: /. 
cassine (E. & N.E. N America), / 
guayusa, Peru, /. vertic/l/ata, (N 
America), /. vomrtor/a E. N America. 



clO 



V 

nt 



1 Northern Temperate (3 
1 spp. in Europe). 



All spp. have edible nuts. C. colurna 
(SE Europe, SW Asia) is cultivated for 
nuts. 



Tropical America 



A. ananassoides is used in Hawai'i for 
hybridising. 



Species of wild pineapple are native to 

botanically undcr-exptored parts of lowland 
South America. They are now Leing used in 
breeding programmes. Collection and 
conservation of clones from the upper 
Amazon and Upper Orinoco is considered 
desirable. 



82 



E 2 

V 3 

R 9 

I 1 



Indomalaysia, E. Asia 



Also ornamentals and source of seed- 
oil. 



Truly wild teas probably no longer exist. In 
cultivation a substantial loss of genetic 
variability has been anticipated which needs 
to be countered by deliberate conservation 
measures. 



E 1 

V 1 

R 3 

I 1 

nt 1 



Warm America 



At least 6 other spp. domesticated: C. 
pubescens (high Andes); C. pentagona 
(Babaco) (Ecuador and elsewhere) 
(possibly hybrid); C. stipu/ata (S. 
Ecuador); C. monoica; C. goudotiana; 
at least 12 other spp. are harvested 
for fruits\ 



Though a 'weed', papaya does not thrive in 
secondary growth. Domesticated papaya 
readily forms feral populations; gene pool of 
wild papaya has widened considerably as a 
result. 



1 Europe 

2 

3 



39 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Species 



Production 

(thousand mt) 

Ane 

tthousand ha) 



Origin of spaclea 



•Viajor garmplasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Chenopodiaceae continued 



Chenopodium quinoa 
Quinoa 



A native American crop of the high 
central Andes developed by Indian 
agriculturists in pre-Colombian times. 



Bolivia 2,000; Germany 953: Ecuador 872; 
UK 24; Chile 14; Ethiopia 11 



Spinacia oleracea 
Spinach 



Native to SW Asia. 



Russia 365; Netherlands 344; USA 251; 
Czech Republic 107; Turkey 103; Bulgaria 
60; China 48; Swieden 29; Japan 20; 
Hungary 16 



Compositae 



Canhemus tinctorius 
Safflowerseed 



727 
1,203 



The cultivated species had its origins in 
the Near East. 



India 1,978; USA 1,754; Mexico 1,560; 
Canada 490; Russia 311; China 178; 
Germany 156; Ethiopia 133; Australia 100; 
Czech Republic 46 



Cynara sco/ymus 
Artichoke 



1,253 Native to the Mediterranean area and 
705 Canary Islands, domesticated several 
thousand years ago. 



USA 45; Italy 20 



Helianthus annuus 
Sunflowerseed 



21,645 Domesticated in central USA probably 
17,641 before the arrival of maize, beans and 
squash. 



Romania 8,418; USA 3,122; Russia 1,602; 
France 1,100; Canada 608: Bulgaria 527; 
China 515; Germany 436; India 350; South 
Africa 162 



Lactuca sath/a 
Lettuce 



Mediterranean. 



USA 2,352; UK 1,218; Netheriands 1,055: 
Russia 980: Bulgaria 412; Czech Republic 
397; Hungary 348: Spain 149; China 104; 
Italy 55 



Convolvulaceae 



Ipomoea batatas 
Sweet Potato 



128,016 Central and South America. A 5-n plant 
9,262 possibly derived from 6-n /. trifida in 
turn possibly derived from /. leucantha 



Peru 4,872: Japan 2,412; Nigeria 1,867; 
Philippines 1,526; Papua New Guinea 1,425; 
Taiwan 1,372; China 1,295; USA 998; 
Vietnam 822; Brazil 799 



Cruciferae 



Brassica oleracea/B. rapa 
Cabbage 



38,109 The wild cabbage is native to Europe: 
1,723 development of cultivars took place in 
the Mediterranean region. 



Brassica oleracea Russia 2,910; UK 2.869; 
Netheriands 1,568; Bulgaria 1,500; France 
1,500: Portugal 835: USA 824; Czech 
Republic 528; Philippines 516; Slovakia 452; 
Taiwan 420 

Brassica rapa India 3,010; Canada 1,262; 
UK 782; Japan 548; USA 270; Germany 
235; Netheriands 220; Bulgaria 194; S Korea 
88; Portugal 78 



Brassica Juncea 
Mustardseed 




The primary centre of origin is believed 
to be Central Asia - Himalaya. Probably 
B. nigra x B. rapa ssp. campestris 


India 7,781; Canada 703; China 631: UK 
258; USA 258; France 170; Germany 107; 
Australia 100; Japan 96; Israel 90 


Brassica napus, 
B. rapa 
Rapeseed 


26,661 
20,736 


B. napus is probably a hybrid of B. 
oleracea x B. rapa ssp. campestris. 


Germany 1,632; Canada 677; UK 514; 
China 450: Bulgaria 296; USA 246: Israel 
160: Poland 120; Australia 91; France 63 


Cucurbitaceae 


Citrullus lanatus 
Melonseed 




Native to S Africa, chiefly in the 
Kalahari Desert. 


USA 927; Israel 433; Iran 280 Hungary 203; 
Bulgaria 200: Philippines 149; Spain 134; 
Germany 130; China 95; Ecuador 49 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Species 

•pecies stetus 

in genus 



Distribution of genus 



Other species in genus used 



Conservation notes 



150 



Ex 
E 
V 
R 



1 

4 
2 
1 
1 
10 



Mostly temperate regions, 
inducing S. America. 



Grains, ornamental, medicinal etc. 
Including C. album, C. bonus-henricus 

(leaf vegetable) (Europe), C. 
ambrosiodes (Tropical America) 
medicinal, C. pallidicaule (Andes) 
grain. 



SW Asia 



R 

nt 



Mediterranean 
Asiatic 



Mediterranean 
Canary Is 



C. cardunculus (Cardoon) (S Europe) is 
also eaten 



Ex 1 
R 2 

nt 2 



Also ornamental; H. tuberosus 

(Jerusalem artichoke) is also eaten. 



Some of the American varieties have been 
preserved. A large genetic reservoir exists 
among the weed and wild sunflowers. Wild 
gene pools are disappearing owing to habitat 
loss. 



clOO 



E 

V 

R 

I 

K 

nt 



Cosmopolitan especially N 
Temperate 



L. virosa (opium lettuce) (C&S Europe) 
cultivated for medicine. L. scariola 
(prickly lettuce) (originally Europe now 
suocosmopolitan weed) also eaten 
locally. 



c500 



E 

V 

R 

I 

K 

nt 



5 

4 

16 

15 

1 

19 



Tropical and warm 
temperate. 



/. aquatica (water spinach OW) - 
leaves eaten. Other spp. ornamental, 
purgatives. 



The conservation of variability is a major 

concern in breeding for subsistence 

agriculture. 

Biosphere Reserves: Komodo (Indonesia). 



c30 



E 3 

V 3 

R 7 

I 1 



Wide range of crops (variously leaves, 
buds, florets, stems and roots eaten); 
also used for oil production 
B. cannata (Texsel greens) (NE Africa), 
B. hirta (white and yellow mustard) 
(Mediterranean); B. juncea (Indian 
mustard) (Eurasia); B. juncea v. 
crispifolia (Chinese mustard); 



IPGRI has designated the collection of wild 
forms of B.oleracea as a conservation 
priority. Several related Mediterranean taxa 
are threatened in the wild. Large collections 
of B. juncea form a substantial gene pool 
and wild material is widely distributed. 

Biosphere Reserves: Shennongjia (China). 



Tropical and S. Africa, 
probably also Asia 



C. colocynthis (vine of Sodom) 
(Mediterranean & India) - purgative 
etc. 



41 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Spmchs 



Production 

(thousand mt) 

Area 

(thousand haf 



Origin of species 



Major germplasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Cucurbitaceae continued 



Cucumis me/o 
Melon/Water melon 



40,853 
2,629 

(& canteloups, 
etc) 



Wild forms are found in eastern tropical 

Africa. 



Russia 4,550; USA 3,402; Spain 1,176; Iran 
850; France 480; Germany 267; Bulgaria 
250; Hungary 212; Israel 200; Taiwan 189 



Cucumis sat/vus 
Cucumber 



14,542 
975 

(8t gherltins) 



Native to India, probably cultivated for 
over 3,000 years. 



Russia 3,380; Bulgaria 1,426; USA 1,334; 
Germany 483; Slovakia 376; Taiwan 354; 
Viet Nam 299; China 255; Hungary 184; 
Czech Republic 136 



Cucurbita moschata, 

C. maxima, 

C. argyrosperma, 

C. pepo, C. ficifotia 

Pumpkin, Squash, Gourd 



lAT^ 5 cultigans. Domesticated in the 
656 Americas at least 10,000 years ago. 
C. moschata is most like the wild 
species and was domesticated 
independently in Central & South 
America. 



Cucurbita maxima Argentina 630; USA 514; 
Hungary 253; Philippines 227; Brazil 215; 
China 141; Germany 52; Japan 18; 
Colombia 17; South Africa 14 
C. moschata Costa Rica 915; Mexico 320; 
Philippines 318; Brazil 215; USA 187; 
Colombia 113; Cuba 82; Japan 44; 
Argentina 20; India 18 
C. pepo USA 1,367; Hungary 483; Mexico 
312; Costa Rica 123; Iran 119; Germany 94; 
Turkey 54; Philippines 33; 
Canada 15; South Africa 13 



Dioscoreaceae 



Dioscorea spp. 

D. alata. D. batatas. 

D. bulbifera, D. cayenensis, 

D. escu/enta, D. trifida 

Yam 



27,814 Domestication of yams in Asia, Africa 
2,803 and tropical America took place 
separately with different species 
involved. 



Dioscorea trifida Guadeloupe 77; Costa Rica 

21; France 17 



Euphorbiaceae 



Manihot esculenta 
Cassava 



152,218 
15, 757 



A cultigen, unknown in the wild state. 



Philippines 5,715; Colombia 5,035; Nigeria 
2,864; Brazil 2,785; India 1,327; Uganda 
1,133; Malawi 978; Peru 839; Congo 634 



Gramineae 



A vena satrva 

Oats 



33,900 Generally regarded as a secondary crop, 
20,499 evolved in W and N Europe from weed 

oat components of wheat and barley 

crops. 



Russia 12,792; USA 12,725; Kenya 9,000; 

UK 2,335; Indonesia 2,210; Israel 2,000; 
Hungary 1,747; Ecuador 1,496; Poland 
1,083; Canada 1,047 



Echinochloa frumentacea 

Japanese Barnyard Millet 



Different strains are thought to have at 
least partially different origins. 



India 646; Australia 25 



Eleusine coracana 

Finger Millet 



Central Africa. Taken to India probably India 7,341; Kenya 1,526; USA 1,212; 



over 3,000 years ago where a second 
centre of diversity became established. 



Ethiopia 940; Uganda 931; Malawi 277; 
Russia 220; Japan 207; Sri Lanka 31; 
Australia 14 



Digitaria exilis 
Fonio 



West Africa, thought to be a cultigen. 



France 687; Ethiopia 19 



Hordeum vu/gare 

Barley 



160.134 
73,449 



One of the first crops domesticated in 
the Near East. 



Brazil 37,709; Germany 24,079; Russia 

23,582; USA 22,539; Syria 16,706; Ethiopa 
12,716; UK 12,657; Ecuador 12,548; Japan 
11,366; Mexico 6,808 



42 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Species 

species status 

in genus 



Distribution of genus 



Other species In genus used 



Conservation notes 



30 



1 OW Tropics 



C. angaria (West Indian Gherkin) 
possibly derived from C. longipes. 



1 Tropical and Warm 
Americas 



Also eaten: C. foetid/ssima (buffalo 

gourd). 



Many of the wild Cucurbita species have 
restricted ranges. 



c600 



4 
24 
50 
11 

6 



Tropical and warm 



Also used for production of oral 
contraceptives. 



Serious genetic erosion has occurred among 
cultivated yams and there is an urgent need 
to collect and conserve genetic diversity. 
Insufficient data on the status of wild yams 
but much cause for concern. 



98 



V 

nt 



Tropical & warm Americas 



M. g/aziovii is the source of Ceara or 
Manicoba rubber and oilseeds. 



The virtually unexplored wild relatives are an 
important genetic resource for crop 
improvement. Centre of diversity of wild 
relatives are in east-central Brazil, NE Brazil 
and SW Mexico. 



25 



2 Temperate old world 

1 

3 



The potential of wild populations in breeding 
programmes remains to be determined. 
Biosphere Reserves: Shennongjia (China), 
Palava (Czech Republic). 



35 



E. frumentacea is also grown for 
fodder in the USA; E. pyramidalis 
(tropical & S. Africa and Madagascar) 
is used as fodder and locally as flour; 
E. Xumerana Channel Millet (Australia) 
is a promising forage and grain crop. 
Several other spp. are weeds. 



c9 



This species is still capable of genetic 
exchange with related wild forms living in 
the same area. 



230 



Tropical and warm 



D. iburu (W. Africa) eaten like millet; 
D. decumbens (S. Africa) pasture 
grass in USA. 



N. temperate 



H. distichon (2-rowed barley) is 
possibly H. vulgare x H. spontaneum. 



Concern about genetic erosion e.g. in 
Ethiopia, where cuttivars are valuable for 
genetic resistance to disease and improved 
nutritional quality. 

Biosphere Reserves: Touran (Iran), Great 
Gobi (Mongolia). 



43 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Species 



Production 

(thousand mt) 

Ares 

(thousand ha) 



Origin of species 



Major germplasm collections 
(number of accessions} 



Gramineae continued 



OryzB glabernma, 
O. sativa 

Rice 



525,475 The origin of Asian rice O. sativa is 
147, 168 uncertain. The African O. glabernma 

probably originated 3,500 years ago. Its 
primary centre of diversity is the 
swampy area of the Upper Niger. 



Oryza glabernma Nigeria 2,578; Philippines 
2,412; cote d'lvoire 650; France 650; USA 
462; Bangladesh 200; 
Liberia 60; India 22; Thailand 17 
Oryza sativa Philippines 82,583; USA 
29,987; Thailand 17,267; China 16.885; 
Nigeria 13,098; India 12,790; Japan 
11,559; Indonesia 7,263; France 6,125; 
Russia 5,900 



Panicum miliaceum 
Common Millet 



28,550 
37,850 



A millet of ancient cultivation which is 
not known in its wild state. 



Russia 8,733; India 1,490; USA 1,103; 
Mexica 400; Kenya 216; Japan 126; 
Bulgaria 97; Romania 84; Hungary 50; 
Pakistan 21 



Pennisetum americanum 

Bulrush Millet 



Probably in western tropical Africa 
where the greatest number of cultivated 
and related wild forms occur. A second 
centre of diversity became established 
in India. 



France 6,171; Australia 346; South Africa 
10 



Saccarhum officinarum 

Sugarcane 



1,104,580 
17,934 



New Guinea (cultigen). 



Nigeria 386; Philippines 68; Dominican 
Republic 23 



Secafe cerea/e 

Rye 



29,212 SW Asia, culitgen arising from S. 
13,435 montanum. a weed of wheat and 

barley. 



USA 3,678: Poland 2,523; Germany 1,808; 
Canada 1,430; Portugal 603; Spain 366; 
Sweden 360; Bulgaria 262; South Africa 
231; Finland 210 



Setaria italica 

Foxtail Millet 



Unknown in the wild state, the crop is 

thought to have arisen from the 
common Old World weed S. viridis. 



China 6,696; Russia 4,720; India 2,707; 
USA 1,241; France 670; Kenya 451; Mexico 
350; Japan 274; Hungary 109; Australia 50 



Sorghum bicolor 

Sorghum 



70,448 Developed primarily from the wild 5. 
45,695 arundinaceum in Africa at least 1000 
years ago. 



USA 18,971; Brazil 15,500; France 7,330; 

Ethiopia 7,297; Australia 7,178; Russia 
6,200; Mexico 5,500; China 5,263; Yemen 
4,024; Puerto Rico 4,000 



Triticum aestivum, 
T. turgidum 

Wheat 



563,649 Mediterranean and Near East. Origin is 
220,007 complex and not fully understood, 
involving Aegi/ops spp. 



Triticum aestivum USA 31,691; Mexico 
20,094; India 16,875; Ecuador 13,116; 
Hungary 10,341; UK 10,082; Germany 
8.911; Romania 8,222; Czech Republic 
7.300; Japan 7,000 
Triticum turgidum Syria 916; USA 883; 
Brazil 326; Spain 300; Germany 174; Brazil 
117; South Africa 82; Bulgaria 57; 
Switzerland 46; Czech Republic 40 



Zea mays 

Maize 



526,410 
132,266 



Maize was domesticated in prehistoric 
times in Mexico and Central America. 



Mexico 31,195; USA 23,573; Russia 
18,324; Croatia 12,000; Colombia 9,933; 
Romania 9,619; China 8,004; France 7,277; 
Ecuador 6,294; Japan 6,177 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of 
speciea 
In genus 



Specloi 
status 



Distribution of genus 



Other species In genus used 



Conservation notes 



19 



R 1 Tropical 

I 1 

nt 1 



O.sativa possibly derived from O. 
rufipogon (selected weed in Cohcasia 
fields) with several centres of 
domestication. 



As rice cultivation has become more 
intensive, many wild populations have 
disappeared. The International Rice Research 
Centre in the Philippines coordinates the 
collection of indigenous varieties. Little 
effort has been made to conserve O. 
glaberrima and its wild relatives, however. 
Biosphere Reserves: Waza (Cameroon). 



470 



E 

V 

R 

I 

K 

nt 



1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
20 



Trop. to warm temp. 



P. hemiotum (pifine grass) (N America) 
and P. texanum (Colorado grass) (s N 
America) - both fodder; P. maximum 
(Guinea grass) (Africa, naturalized 
America) - cultivated forage crop; P. 
sumatranse (little millet, Malaysia) 
minor grain. 



80 



E 1 Tropical and warm 

R 1 

I 3 

nt 1 



Fodders, lawn-grasses, some grains. P. 
hohanackeri {moyd grass) (E Africa to 
India) is suggested for paper making; 
P. c/andestinum (Kikuyu grass) 
(tropical Africa) • pasture grass, 
erosion control, lawns; P. purpureum 
(elephant or Napier grass) (Africa) • 
fodder and paper. 



This species is still capable of genetic 
exchange with related wild forms living in 
the same area. 
Biosphere Reserves: B^noud (Cameroon). 



30 



Tropical and warm 



Hybrids of S. officinarum with other 
spp. and cultigens now grown, 
especially in W. Indies and Hawaii. 



Valuable germplasm of wild sugarcane and 
related species has been lost as a result of 
habitat destruction in Malaysia, Indonesia 
and Papua New Guinea. 



R 1 Eurasia 

I 1 



I 1 Tropical and warm 

nt 7 



5. gfauca (Yellow foxtail) (warm) 
cattle fodder; S. pa/mifolia (India) - 
shoots eaten in Java; S. sphacelata (S 
Africa) is an important silage crop. 



24 



R 1 Warm Old World and 1 sp. 

nt 2 in Mexico 



Backcrosses with 5. arundinaceum 
gave 5. drummondii cultivated for 
forage; 5. ha/epense (Mediterranean), 
is a widely naturalized fodder plant, 
often weedy. 



Biosphere Reserves: Waza (Cameroon), 

Shennongjia (China). 



20 



I 1 Europe 



A number of wild relatives are restricted to 
small areas. There is a need for further ex 
situ conservation. 



Central America 



A wild species Z. perennis was presumed 

extinct in the wild until its rediscovery in 
1977. A new species was also discovered, 
Z. dip/operennis, and is now protected in the 
Sierra de Mananttan Biosphere Reserve, 
Mexico. 



45 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



FamllY 

SpBChM 



Production 

{thousand mt) 

Ans 

(thousand haf 



Origin of species 



Major germpiasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Grossulariaceae 



Ribss nigrum, /?. rubnjm 

Currants 



618 Domesticated in northern Europe within Ribes nigrum Poland 156; UK 133; Sweden 



the past 500 years. Black and red 
currants are native to northern Europe 
and northern Asia, with the 
blackcurrant extending to the 
Himalayas. 



116; Denmark 88; Czech Republic 52 
Ribes rubrum Denmark 77; Poland 56; 
Sweden 42 



lllicium verum 
Star Anise 



China, Viet Nam. 



Juglandaceae 



Juglans regia 

Walnut 



918 Native from SE China to Europe. 



France 130; Argentina 127; Turkey 100; 
Spain 60; Poland 52; Switzerland 40; Italy 
39; Chile 35; Portugal 33; India 32 



Persea amen'cana 
Avocado 



2,052 Origin in Central America; has been 

cultivated for several thousand years; 3 
races (Mexican, Guatemalan, W. Indian) 
indicate parallel domestication. 



USA 697; Brazil 462; Israel 422; Thailand 
363; Cuba 327; Mexico 326; Australia 294; 
Philippines 246; Jamaica 108; Venezuela 93. 
Major collections also in: Jamaica, Puerto 
Rico. 



Legumlnosae 



Arachis hypogaea 

Groundnut 



23,506 A cultigen domesticated thousands of 

20,609 years ago in South America. Probably 

originated as an allopolyploid hybrid of 

annual and perennial spp. of E Andes. 



India 27,280; USA 15,329; China 4,563; 
Argentina 3,153; Indonesia 1,885; Brazil 
1,300; Russia 1,200; Venezuela 1,061; 
Uganda 900, Senegal 900 



Cajanus cajan 
Pigeonpea 



Cultigen; centre of origin assumed to be 
India 



India 13,542; Kenya 1,080; Philippines 433; 
Indonesia 377; Thailand 201; Uganda 200; 
Ethiopia 176; Australia 176; Ghana 154; 
Vietnam 122 



Clear arietinum 
Chickpea 



6.887 
9,660 



Western Asia; possibly derived from C. 
raticu/atum. 



India 17,995; Syria 7,232; USA 5,796; 
Pakistan 5,168; Mexico 2,399; Spain 2,356; 
Russia 1,685; Iran 755; Ethiopia 684; Italy 
671 



Glycine max 
Soybean 



1 1 4,01 1 A cultigen not known in the wild, 
54,046 soybean is thought to have arisen as a 
domesticate in the eastern half of 
northern China c 3000 years ago 
probably from G. so/a; the weedy form 
is G. gracilis. 



China 27,746; USA 22,252; Taiwan 16,360; 
India 8,262; Korea 6,478; Japan 6,124; 
Brazil 5,522; Russia 4,500;France 3,045; 
Indonesia 3,012 



Lablab purpureus 
Lablab bean 



Domesticate is probably of tropical 
African origin and derived from the wild 
ssp. uncinatus; now widespread in the 
tropics. 



Ethiopa 213; India 170; Australia 76; 
Indonesia 69; Philippines 66; South Africa 
31; Brazil 28; Belgium 25; Colombia 23 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Sp«cl6» 

tpcclet ttatut 

In gttnus 



Dlitributlon of genus 



Othsr spaciet in genut utad 



Conservation notes 



150 



Ex 


1 


E 


2 


EW 


1 


V 


2 


R 


4 


1 


4 



Temp. N. Hemis. Andes 



Many spp. with edible fruits: 
R. americanum (American Blackcurrant 
(E N America); R. aureum (Golden 
currant) (W N America); R. cun/atum 
(granite gooseberry) (S & SE USA); R. 
dh/aricatum (WorcesterberryJ (W N 
America); R. hirteUum (E N America) 
edible gooseberry used in hybridising; 
R. odoratum buffalo currant (E USA); 
R. uva-crispa gooseberry (Europe). 



Biosphere Reserves: La Compana-Penuelas 
(Chile), Shennongjia (China), Mt Paekdu 
(Korea PDR). 



42 



V 
R 
nt 



2 E & SE Asia, SE N 
1 America to HispanJola. 



Some commerical oils; /. anisatum 
(Japanese anise). 



21 



E 
nt 



Mediterranean to E Asia, N 
America to Andes. 



Edible seeds, timber, ornamentals. 
Also eaten: J. a/fantifo/ia (Japanese 
walnut)(Japan); J. cinerea (butternut) 
(E N America); J. naotropica (S 
America); J. nigra (Black walnut) (E H 
America); 



Biosphere Reserves: Cinturbn Andino Cluster 
(Colombia), Arasbaran (Iran), Retezat 
(Romania,. 



150 



Tropics 



Other spp. used for timber. P. 
schiedeana (C America) wild fruits 
collected, also cultivated on smalt 
scale, graft compatible with P. 
antericana; P. nubigena fruits 
collected, sometimes by felling; P. 
borbonia has high resistance to root 
rot; P. floccosa has been crossed with 
P. amencana. The endangered caoba 
tree from Ecuador Caryodaphnops/s 
(Persea) theobromifolia is a wild 
relative resistant to blight. 



Primitive wild relatives are restricted to small 
areas in Central America. Typically occurs in 
forest areas, often threatened by coffee or 
marijuana cultivation. 
Biosphere Reserves: Tikal (Guatemala), 
Montes Azut (Mexico). Present in La Tigra 
NP (Honduras). 



22 



Much unexplored genetic variability in wild 
relatives of potential importance in breeding 
programmes. The protection of perennial 
Arachis species in Latin America is 
considered a conservation priority. 



I 1 Old World tropics 



Should probably be included in 
Atylosia (35 Asia to Australia). 



40 



6 C fit W Asia + one sp. 
each in Greece, Morocco, 
Ethiopia. 



Many of the wild relatives of chickpea are 
threatened or rare. 



1 Asia to Australia 



Soybean cultivars grown in the USA show a 
high degree of genetic uniformity. The 
germplasm base in Asian countries is being 
destroyed partly through the introduction of 
modern cultivars. Conservation of traditional 
land races is urgently needed. 



Tropical Africa 



47 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 
Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Sp»elBM 



Production Origin of species 
{thousand mt) 
Ant 
tthoufndhtl 



Major garmplasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Leguminosae continued 



Lens cullnarls 
Lentil 



2,403 The wild progenitor of the cultivated 
3, 166 lentil is Lens orlentells, a Near Eastern 
species. 



Syria 6,966; USA 2,876; Russia 2,484; 
Pakistan 1,280; India 1,192; Bangladesh 
798; Ecuador 659; Mexico 599; Hungary 
566; Greece 395 



Lupinus mutebllis 
Lupin 



A very variable cultigen of the high 
Andes. 



Peru 2,149; Spain 1,799; Germany 1,020; 
Ecuador 488; USA 268; France 250; Bolivia 
201; Chile 103; South Africa 18; Colombia 
14 



Pheseolus lunatus 
Lima bean 



It is thought that separate 
domestications occurred in Central and 
South America from conspecific 
geographic races. 



Indonesia 3,846; USA 2,172; Colombia 
1,836; Cuba 834; Brazil 774; Mexico 610; 
Philippines 515; Ghana 201; Belgium 190; 
Peru 62 



Pheseolus vulgaris 
Haricot bean 



It is thought that separate 
domestications occurred in Central and 
South America from conspecific 
geographic races. 

15.918 The wild progenitor is unknown end the 
(dry) early history of the pea crop is unclear. 
8,693 Probable centres of origin are Ethiopia, 
the Mediterranean and Central Asia. 



Colombia 24,650; USA 14,203; Brazil 
8.404; Mexico 8,315; Malawi 6,000; UK 
5,455; Germany 5,188; Romania 4,227; 
India 1,700; China 1,683 



Pisum setivum 
Pea 



Sweden 7,512; USA 6,678; Russia 5,546; 
Germany 4,578; Italy 4,440; UK 3,813; 
Poland 2,990; Czech Republic 2,562; Brazil 
1,431; India 1,400 



Vicie faba 
Broad bean 



4,067 Usually considered a cultigen from V. 
(dry) narbonensis but may be from C. Asia. 
3,005 



Syria 3,684; Germany 2,730; Ecuador 
2,636; Spain 1,859; Italy 1,795; Ethiopa 
1,208; France 1,161; Netherlands 760; Peru 
597; Poland 550 



Vigna unguiculata 
Cowpea 



The common cultivated subspecies is 
thought to be derived from wild plants 
in Ethiopia several thousand years ago. 



Nigeria 15,200; USA 4,705; Indonesia 
3,930; Brazil 2,284; Philippines 1,457; 
Botswana 852; India 518; Uganda 350; 
Venezuela 347; Ethiopa 268 



Lecythidaceae 



Benholletia excelsa 
Brazil nut 



Tropical South Americe. Nuts are still 
collected from wild trees es 
experimental plantations have mainly 
felled. 



Brazil 45 



Liliaceae 



Allium cepa. Allium fistulosum 
Onion 



28,223 Central Asia; a cultigen, possibly 
(dry) derived from A. oscheninil. 
1,883 



Allium cepe Russia 2,050; India 1,508; UK 
960; Israel 550; Netherlands 508; USA 362; 
Czech Republic 299; Italy 274; Spein 268 
Allium fistulosum Russia 222. 



Allium setivum 
Garlic 



3,379 Known only in cultivation. A. 
512 longicuspis, a species endemic to 

central Asia, may be its wild ancestor. 



India 559; Czech Republic 309: Germany 
162; Poland 143; Spain 128; Brazil 111; 
USA 102; Cuba 78; Teiwan 50; Japan 41 



4B 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of 
■pecies 
In g«nus 



Sp«claa 
status 



Distribution of genus 



Othar spsciss In gsnus used 



Conservation notes 



Mediterranean, W Asia, 
Africa. There are possibly 
only 2 spp {L nigricans 
and L culinaris). 



200 



Ex 


1 


E 


8 


V 


10 


R 


8 


1 


13 


K 


1 


n1 


2 


E 


1 


nt 


1 



E S America, Andes, 
Rockies, Mediterranean, 
tropical African highlands. 



Fodder, L. a/bus (Mediterranean) eaten 
by Romans, coffee substitute; L. 
lutsus (Mediterranean) green manure, 
coffee substitute; L. perennls (E N 
America) fodder. 



60 



Tropical & warm Americas 



Also eaten: P. acutHollus v. latifollus 
(tepary bean)(S N America); P. 
coccineus (scarlet runner) (C America). 



Most wild relatives are widespread but 
populations of several taxa are being lost to 
overgrazing in south-west USA and northern 
Mexico. 



Mediterranean; W Asia. 



Breeding relies on a fairly narrow genetic 
resource base and efforts to conserve 
genetic variability of the cultivated crop have 
been fairly limited. 



140 



Ex 
E 

V 
R 



1 
4 

7 
13 

3 
15 



N temperate with 
extensions to S America, 
Hawaii and tropical E 
Africa. 



Other spp. are used for forage & green 
manure - V. ervilia (bitter vetch) (S 
Europe); V. vHlosa (Russian vetch) 
(Eurasia). 



150 



Tropical, especially Old 
World. 



Other spp. are used for forage & green 
manure etc. Other pulses include: V. 
aconftifol/a (moth bean) S. Asia; V. 
angular/s (Aduki bean) (Asia);V^. 
mungo (urd) (Tropical Asia); V. radlata 
(mung bean)(7lndonesia} - possible 
ancestor of V. sublerranea (Bambara 
groundnut)(W Africa); V. umbellata 
(rice bean)(S Asia); V. unguiculata 
(cowpea)(Old World); V. vaxillata 
(tropical Old World) - roots edible. 



Tropical S Americe 



The species is threatened in the wild 
because of logging for its valuable timber. 
Commercial collection of wild nuts is a 
sustainable form of forest exploitation and is 
being promoted in extractive reserves. 



700 



Ex 


1 


N. Hemisphere. 


E 
V 


10 

13 




R 

1 


61 
11 




K 


9 




nt 


40 





Also eaten: A. ampeloprasum (Europe 
8t N Africa); A. canadense (Canada 
garlic); A. cernuum (Lady's leek) (N 
America); A. chinense (Asia); A. 
oleraceum (field garlic) (Europe); A. 
schoenoprasum (chives, Eurasia); A. 
sconfoprasum (sand leek) (Eurasia); A. 
sphaerocephaion (round-headed 
garlic), Europe & Mediterranean); A. 
tuberosum {Chinese chives) (SE Asia). 



Biosphere Reserves: Waterton Lakes 
(Canada), Shennongjia (China), Southeast 
Rugen (Germany), Mt Olympus (Greece), 
Great Gobi (Mongolia), Mt Paekdu (Korea 
PDR), Babia Gora (Poland), Pietrosul Mare 
(Romania). 



49 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 



Production 

(thousand mt) 

Ans 

(thousand ha/ 



Origin of special 



Major germplasm collections 
(number of accessions) 



Malvaceae 



Gossyp/um barbadense, 
G. hirsutum 
Cottonseeds 



34,613 Cotton has a complex and controversial 
history, although was apparently 
domesticated independently in the Old 
World and New World around 5000 BP; 
99% of current world crop is from 4n 
plants principelly derived from New 
World G. barbadense and G. hirsutum. 
but with some genetic contribution 
from the 2n Old World G. arboreum and 
G. herbaceum, the former having been 
selected from the latter in Africa. 



Gossypium barbadense Russia 820; India 
803; USA 603; France 562; Argentine 225; 
Pakistan 132; Sudan 23; Greece 16 
Gossypium hirsutum \r\dia 12,662; Russia 
3,307; France 1,889; Pakistan 1,716; USA 
1,587; Brazil 1,249; Greece 750; Sudan 413 



Moraceae 



Ficus carica 
Fig 



Southern Arabia, allied to F. palmate of 
NE Africa to India. 



Syria 370; Turkey 291; Ukraine 270; Italy 
250; France 149; Albania 126; Algeria 58; 
Iran 48; Cyprus 39; Japan 37 



Museceae 



Muse ecuminata, 
M. X parad/siace 
Banana, Plantain 



49,630 
(banana) 

26,797 

(plantain) 



Most cultivated clones are 3n, some 
derived directly from M. ecuminata 
(2n), others from crosses of this with 
M. ba/bisiana. 



Muse acuminata Honduras 676; Belgium 77; 

France 36; Cameroon 26; Brazil 25; Spain 

18; South Africa 14; Malaysia 11 

Musa paradisiaca Ecuador 1 50; Colombia 

61; Taiwan 18 

Major Muse collections also in: COta d'lvoire, 

Cuba, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Martinique, 

Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, 

Uganda, Zaire, 



Myrtaceae 



Pimente dioica 

Pimento 



West Indies and Central America. 



Oleaceae 



Olee europaea 

Olive 



10,669 A cultigen probably derived from 0. 
europee ssp. africane in the eastern 
Mediterrenean. 



France 151; Greece 112; Iran 38; Albania 
20 



Paimaa 



Cocos nucifera 
Coconut 



41,044 The origin of the coconut is obscure. 
Wild types predominate on the Africen 
and Indian coasts of the Indian Ocean, 
and scattered in Southeast Asia and the 
Pacific. 



Sierra Leone 200; Venezuela 183; India 121; 
Viet Nam 30; Brazil 14; Kenya 11 



Phoenix dactylifera 


3,737 


A food plant of ancient cultivation in 


Algeria 413; Iraq 182; Nigeria 174; USA 68; 


Date 




North Africa and the Middle East. 


India 34; Morocco 31; Sudan 26; South 
Africa 18; Brazil 18; Iran 16 



Elaeis guineensis 
Oil Palm 



12,822 West Africa, originally e species of the 
transition zone between savanna and 
rain forest. 



Zaire 16,938; Malaysia 1,300; Ecuador 304; 
Sierre Leone 200; Nicaragua 20; Costa Rica 
14; Zaire 421; Indonesia 220 



Pedaliaceae 



Sesemum orientefe 
Sesameseed 



2,433 
6,946 



Possibly Ethiopia or peninsular India. 



50 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of 
apeclat 
in genu I 



Species 
statue 



Distribution of genus 



Other species in genus used 



Conservation notes 



39 V 2 Warm temperate & 

R 3 tropical, 

nt 4 



c800 



1 
5 
8 
5 
17 



Tropical & warm, 
especialty Indomalaya. 



Other spp. are sources of rubber, 
fibres, paper, medicines etc; F. pumi/a 
(Vietnam to Japan) fruits used for jelly 
in China (okgue). 



35 



Tropical Asia 



Fe'i bananas (2n) believed derived 
from M. maclayi and possibly other 
related spp., origin New Guinea 
(perhaps domesticated >9000 years 
BP). 

M. textilis recent domesticate in 
Philippines used for Manila hemp. 
Related Ensete ventricosum cultivated 
in Ethiopia for starchy pseudostem. 



The genetic base of banana breeding is 
narrow. Forest clearance is threatening the 
variability of wild bananas M. acuminata and 
other Musa spp. Protection of wild species 
in Asia is an IPGRI conservation priority. 
Biosphere Reserves: Gunung Leuser, Siberut 
(Indonesia). 



2-5 



Tropical America 



P. acr/'s (Bay rum tree) (tropical 
America introduced to Pacific) used for 
scent and soap. 



20 



R 
nt 



1 Tropical & temperate Old 

2 World. 



Other species provide good timber. 



Olive production is in decline and loss of 
traditionally managed olive groves has 
serious consequences for wildlife in the 
Mediterranean region. In Algerir and Niger 
the wild olive relative 0/ea laperrinei is 
threatened partly by over-cutting for cattle 
fodder. 

Biosphere Reserves: Tassili, El Kala (Algeria), 
Samaria (Greece), Gano (Iran), Mt Kulal 
(Kenya), Dona5a (Spain). 



?E Malesia or Barrier Reef 



The tendency to plant uniform, improved 
hybrids is reducing genetic variation 
particularly in domesticated types. 



V 

nt 



2 
10 



Tropical & warm Africa 
and Asia (1 Europe). 



P. syfvestn's (India) - palm sugar and 
toddy; P. acaulis (Assam to Myanmar) 
fruit chewed like betel. 



P. theophrasti, allied to date palm, restricted 
to Crete where Vulnerable. 



1 tropical America; 1 
tropical Africa. 



f. o/eifera (Tropical America) is less 
important than E. guineensis. 



in West Africa oil palm groves are being 
thinned to make way for other food crops. 
Conservation of the entire genepool in Africa 
and parts of Latin America is considered a 
priority by IPGRI. 



15 



Old World Tropics & S 
Africa 



51 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Sp»cJ0i 



Production 

IthouMnd mt) 

Am 

fthouaandhsf 



Origin of spaclea 



Major garmplatm collectlona 
fnumbar of accaaalona) 



Piparacaaa 



Piper nigrum 
Pepper 



Wild pepper plants grow in the Western 
Ghats of Melabar, southwestern India 
and this is presumed to be the crop's 
centre of origin. 



Rosacaae 



Fragarla x ananassa 
Strawberry 



2.307 A hybrid between two American 

species, F. chf/oensls and F. virginlana. 
Both species were harvested from the 
wild and also planted by Indians before 
European settlement. Crossing took 
place in Europe in the 18th century. 



Fragaria chlloansls Canada 2,859; USA 661: 
Slovakia 68 

Fragaria x ananassa USA 439; Belgium 351; 
UK 310; Ireland 270; Denmark 229; Sweden 
140; Germany 99; France 98; Poland 96; 
South Africa 55 



Malus domestica 
Apple 



43.087 An aggregate of over 1000 cultivars, or 
ancient and complex hybrid origin, 
probably originally from M. dasyphylla 
(Danube & Balkans), M. praecox (S 
Russia), M. pumlla (S Europe, SW Asia), 
poss M, sylvestrls (Europe, SW Asia). 
M. prvnifolia (NE Asia) is the possible 
ancestor of some Orchard apples. 



France 1.300; Canada 470; UK 270; China 
262; Mexico 169; Spain 69; Germany 67; 
Pakistan 47 



Prunus amygda/us 
Almond 



1,284 
2.153 



Central to western Asia. 



Prunus armenlaca 
Apricot 



Western China. 



Italy 738; Australia 693; France 317; Czech 
Republic 187; Iran 173; USA 161; Turkey 
158; Canada 144; Yugoslavia 101; Poland 
74 



Prunus avium 
Cherry 



Western Asia. 



Italy 1,155; Czech Republic 339; UK 323; 
USA 241; Germany 232; Switzeriand 230; 
Poland 222; Turkey 203; Greece 85; 
Australia 76 



Prunus communis 
Pear 



10.692 
6.181 



Central Asia and the Himalayas. 



Prunus domestica 
Plum 



An ancient 6n cultigen with complex 
origin, possibly in SW Asis end 
involving P. cerasifera and P. splnosa, 
possibly also P. institia; North American 
plums may be native American spp. or 
hybrids with P. saliclna (China). 



UK 495; Italy 361; Poland 214; Switzerland 
159; Sweden 125; Denmark 115; France 
99; Australia 82; Spain 68; Norway 47 



Prunus persice 
Peach 



10,076 
(peach & 
nectarine) 



Western Chine; possibly a cultigen 
derived from P. devidiana. 



Italy 3,107; USA 2,064; Italy 430; Australia 
520; France 335: Greece 280: Argentina 
297; Spain 217; Ecuador 163: Israel 153 



Rublaceaa 



Coffee arabica, C. canephora 
Coffee 



5,919 
(green) 
10,927 



Ethiopia. 



Ethiopia 1,806; Cftte d'lvoire 1,770; Costa 
Rica 1,184; Colombia 886; Kenya 592; 
Cameroon 584; Ecuador 428; India 329; 
USA 316: Brazil 275 



52 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Spacloi 

•paclai ttatui 

In genus 



Distribution of genus 



Other species In genus used 



Conservetlon notes 



10004 



E 5 

V 4 

R 24 

I 8 

nt 26 



Tropics 



Also important P. sduncum (S 
America); P. betle (betel 
peppeDdndomalaysia); P. clusii IW 
Africa black pepper) : P. cubabe IS E 
Asia); P. guineense (W Africa); P. 
longum (India); P. methysticum (Fiji & 
W Pacific). 



12 



N. Temperate & Chile 



Also eaten: F. moschata (hautbois) 
(Europe); F. vesca (wild strawberry) (N 
temperate). 



Biosphere Reserves: Southeast Rugen 
(Germany). 



25 



V 
R 
nt 



N Temperate 



M. baccata (E Asia) fruits eaten; M. 
hupahensis (China, Assam) leaves 
used for tea. 



Conservation of wild relatives of Malus in 
Europe and Asia is an IPGRI priority. 
Biospherr Reserves: Shennongjia (China), 
Middle Elbe, Southeast Rugen (Germany), 
Chatkal Mts, (Kyrgyzstan). 



400 



E 


2 


V 


4 


R 


5 


1 


4 


nt 


6 



Temperate, esp N Hemis 



P. angustifolia (Chickasaw plum)(E N 
America} cultivated edible fruit; P. 
brigantina (Brian^on apricot) (S France) 
seed-oil scented; P. cerasifera 
(rr./robalan) (C Asia to Balkans) small 
edible fruit; P. cerasus (Morello cherry) 
origin unclear; P.xgondQumU KP. 
cerasus x P. avium) • (Duke Cherry) 
leaves used for tea; P. gracilis 
(Oklahoma plum, Arkansas to Texas) 
edibte fruit; P. hortulana (v^ild goose 
plum) (C & SE USA) cultivars with 
edible fruit; P. institia (damson) 
(Europe & Mediterranean); P. mahaleb 
(mahaleb)(Eurasia, introduced to N 
America); P. marWma (beach plum) (E 
N America); P. mume (Japanese 
apricot) (China SW Japan); P. saliciana 
(Japanese plum) (China); P. simonii 
(Apricot plum) (China, not known 
wild); P. spinosa (sloe blackthorn) 
(Europe, W Asia); P. tomentosa 
(Nanking cherry) (Temperate E Asia); 
P. virginiana (chokeberry) (E N 
America). 



A reserve for the conservation of almond 

and other important fruit trees has been 

created in the Kopet mountains 

(Turkmenistan). 

Biosphere Reserves: Vale do Rtbeira, Serra 

da Graciosa (Brazil), Boatine (Bulgaria), 

Shennongjia (China), Gano (Iran), Mt Paekdu 

(Korea PDR), Palava (Slovakia), Montseny 

(Spain). 

Protection of wild species in Europe and 

Asia is considered a conservation priority by 

IPGRI 



40 



2 Old World Tropics, 
1 especially Africa 



C. liberica Is cultivated in W Africa; C. 
stenophylla (W Africa) cultivated & 
berries wild-collected; C. bengalensis 
(India) cultivated; C. zanguebariae 
(Zanzibar); C. eugenioides (Congo 
basin); C. racemosa is harvested wild 
in Mozambique. 



Coffee grows wild In the threatened forests 
of the Ethiopian massif. Much of the forest 
habitat in Ethiopia has been destroyed. 
Habitats of wild coffee are also threatened 
in Kenya. Protection of C. arab/ca in the wild 
is a conservation priority. The genetic base 
of domestic coffee is v. narrow (c 30 forms 
of C. arabica worldwide). 
Biosphere Reserves: Macchabee-Bel Ombre 
(Mauritius). 



53 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



Family 
Sptchs 



Production 

(thouaand mt) 

Am 

llhoutand hai 



Origin of apacloa 



Major garmplaam collactiona 
(numbar of accaaaiona) 



Rutaceaa 



Citnjs aunntlHolia 
Lime 


7,187 
(lime & lemon) 


Cultivated liybrid with obscure origins, 
possibiv a hybrid of C. medica with 
another sp. 


Morocco 63; Thailand 51; Japan 41; India 
40: USA 40; Sudan 35; Brazil 22; France 
19; South Africa 18; China 16 


Citrus limon 
Lemon 




Probably a hybrid of lime with C. 
medica. 


Brazil 195; Turltey 162; USA 98; Italy 75: 
Japan 73; Morocco 60; South Africa 59; 
India 57; China 47; France 47 


Citrus grandis fC. maximal 
Pomelo 


4,672 
(pomelo & 
grapefruit) 


Probably a native of the Malay 
peninsula. 


Thailand 228; Japan 111: China 100: USA 
56; Brazil 52: Philippines 43; Morocco 28; 
South Africa 28: India 21; France 18 


Citrus X paradisi 
Grapefruit 




Probably a hybrid of C. maxima with 
sweet orange baclccrossed with C. 
maxima. 


Brazil 114; South Africa 98; Japan 71; 
France 48 Indonesia 44; Turkey 41; USA 
40; India 27: Iran 25; Greece 19 


Citrus reticulata 
Tangerine 


8,465 

(& mandarins 
etc) 


Southeast Asia. 


Brazil 333; China 310: France 227; South 
Africa 227; Japan 182; USA 138; Morocco 
97: Turkey 88; Spain 72; India 69 


Citrus sinensis 
Sweet Orange 


50,630 


Probably introgressed hybrids of C. 
maxima and C. reticulata, perhaps 
originating in China. 


Brazil 1,363: South Africa 357; China 311: 
Japan 280; Turkey 269; USA 242; France 
170; Morocco 157; India 132: Algeria 96 


Sapotaceaa 


Vitelieria paradoxa 
Karite Nut, Sheanut 




West Africa;, grown in plantations in 
Ghana and Nigeria. 




Soianacaae 



Capsicum annuum 


9,638 


Chili Pepper, Sweet Pepper 


1,149 




(greenchillies & 




peppers) 


Lycopersicon esculentum 


70,443 


Tomato 


2,896 



Domestication first occurred in Middle 
America. 



Taiwan 3,093: USA 1,981; Mexico 1,241; 
Netherlands 880: Germany 783; Hungary 
691: France 516; Israel 500; Bulgaria 368; S 
Korea 350 



South America where derived from 
Andean L. lycopersicon. 



USA 17,706; Taiwan 6,291; Russia 5,500; 
Philippines 5,051; Germany 2,816; France 
1,800; Canada 1,800; Colombia 1,707; 
Netheriands 1,600; Hungary 1,466 



Solanum melongena 
Eggplant 



5,735 
409 



India. 



USA 1.165: Russia 950; India 535; 
Philippines 433: China 393; Japan 303; 
France 260: Italy 158: Netheriands 131; 
Spain 81 



Solanum tuberosum 
Potato 



268,492 
18,031 



The area of domestication is assumed 
to be the high plateau of Bolivia-Peru. 



Germany 6,992; USA 4,303; Japan 1,496; 
Bulgaria 1,259; Sweden 1,212: Bangladesh 
1,067; Colombia 942; Chile 898; India 897; 
Philippines 859; 



Stercullacaae 



Theobroma cacao 
Cocoa 



2,329 Centre of origin is the eastern slopes of 
5,300 the Andes and the centre of cultivation 
is Central America. 



Trinidad and Tobago 1,880: Ecuador 604; 
Costa Rica 540: India 63; Nicaragua 45; 
Guatemala 30: Peru 23. Major collections 
also: Ghana, Brazil, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, 
USA, C6te d'lvoire, Malaysia 



Umbelllferaa 



Daucus carota 
Carrot 



14,028 The species is widespread in Europe 
630 and Asia. The primary centre of origin 
for cultivated forms is thought to be 
Afghanistan. 



Russia 1,700; USA 880: Czech Republic 
772; United Kingdom 509; Germany 97; 
Hungary 90; Sweden 42; Poland 40; Japan 
40: Turkey 35 



54 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of 
species 
In genus 



Spades 
status 



Distribution of genus 



Other species in genus used 



Conservation notes 



S & SE Asia 



C. medica (Citron) (India); C. hystrix 
(liman-purat) (7); C. aurantium (Seville 
orange) is probably introgressed 
hybrids of C. maxima & C. reticulata; 
C. X nobifis (tangor) is sweet orange 
back crossed with C. reticulata; C. x 
tangalo (tangelo) is grapefruit crossed 
with C. reticulata. 



Protection of wild Citrus species In Asia is a 

conservation priority. 

Biosphere Reserves: Gunung Leaser 

(Indonesia). 



10 



1 Tropical America 



C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. 
baccatum, C. pubescans. 



Wild peppers are still collected and sold 
locally. A large number of as yet unexploited 
varieties exists in the Tropics. More 
collection for seed banks is needed. 



W 5 America & Galapagos 



L pimpineilifolium (cherry toma.to) 
(Andes) has very small fruits. 



The wild relatives of the tomato have limited 
ranges. The crop's wild gene pools are 
prone to erosion by habitat destruction. 
Biosphere Reserves: Galapagos (Ecuador), 
TIkal (Guatemala). 



1400 



Ex 


5 


Ex/E 


1 


E 


11 


V 


27 


R 


19 


1 


18 


nt 


10 



Sub-cosmopolitan 



S. centrals (arid Australia) and S. 
muricatum (pepino) (Andes) have 
edible fruit; 5. guitoense (naranjillo) 
(Andes) is used for fruit juice; 
S. mB/anocerasum (JcultigenI 
(cultivated tropical W Africa) fruit; S. 
hyporhodium (upper Amazon): S. 
americanum (yerba mora). 



3,000-5,000 varieties of potato are 
recognised by farmers in the Andes. 
Conservation of genetically valuable local 
varieties is being carried out at the 
International Potato Centre in f^aru. 

Biosphere Reserves: Palava (Czech 
Republic). 



20 I 1 Tropical America All the following are cultivated: T. Cultivated varieties suffer from a lack of 

grandiflorum (cupua^u) (E & C genetic variation. Forests harbouring genetic 

Amazonia): T. speciosum (cacaui) (N S diversity in the wild are being rapidly 
America & S C America): T. destroyed. 

' subincanum (N S America); T. 

obovatum (Amazon); T. angustifolium 
IC America): T. bicolor (N S America & 
C America): T. glaucum (Amazonia in 
Ecuador & Colombia). 

22 R 1 Europe: SW & C Asia: 

I 1 tropical Africa: Australia; 

K 1 New Zealand; America. 

nt 1 



SS 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 4. Major food crops 



FamHy 
Sp»el»t 



Production 

(thoutand mt) 

Ana 

tlhoutandhal 



Origin of *p«ciM 



Major garmplasm collactiona 
(number of accatalonal 



Vitacaaa 



VHls vin'rfera 
Grape 



8,180 10,000 Old World cultivars are thought 
to be derived from this single wild 
species which still occurs in Middle 
Asia. New World varieties were 
produced by hybridising this with V. 
labnjsca and other spp. 



Zinglbaracaaa 



Elettaria cardamomum 
Cardamom 



Native to India. 



56 



Table 4. Major food crops 



No. of Spaciet 

*p«cle> status 

In ganus 



Distribution of genus 



Othar apaclas In ganus usad 



Consarvatlon notas 



1 N Hemisphere 
1 



Fruits also edible of: V. acer'riolia (bush 
grape) (S N America); V. arizonicB 
(canyon grape) (SW N America); V. 
labrusca (fox grape) (E N America): V. 
rotundifolla (bullaca grape) (N 
America); V. rupestrls (sand grape) (E 
N America); V. vulpina (chicken grape) 
(E N America). 



Wild relatives are suffering genetic erosion in 
the USA. 

Biosphere Reserves: Shennongjia (China), 
Rosca-Letea (Romania). 



c7 



India to W Malaysia 



Collection from the wild contributes to the 
commercial trade. 



57 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 5. Domestic livestock 

At the local level, a great many wild animal species are used primarily to meet subsistence needs, the 
kind depending largely on availability and convenience, and to some extent, tradition. Globally, a small 
number of animal species are used in extensive ranching or farming systems, while fewer still are used 
in domestic livestock production. Breeds of domestic goat, sheep, cattle, pigs and domestic fowl are 
cosmopolitan in distribution and the basis for most of the world's agricultural animal food production. 
Marine and inland fisheries exceed the principal domestic stock in terms of production volume, 
although use of fishery products is unevenly distributed. 

The four principal mammalian livestock species have diversified under more than 5,000 years of 
domestication and artificial selection into more than 2,000 recognised breeds, each with unique 
characteristics. Other livestock, including remaining mammals, chickens, honey bees, silk worms, etc., 
have been fully domestic for less time (but many more generations in the case of non-mammals). Some 
breed characteristics may be of no apparent significance to humans, others, perhaps involving milk 
yield, fleece type, food utilisation, fecundity, or resistance to parasites or climatic stress, may be of 
great value. 

Although, especially among cattle and pigs, intensification of production has gone hand in hand with 
narrowing of the genetic base, such that semen from individually documented and tested lines 
commands a premium, there is increasing recognition of the genetic potential resident in less 
commercially-developed breeds and blood lines, and of the often neglected value of locally adapted 
stock in comparison with commercial stock from advanced industrial countries. The pool of genetic 
resources represented by domestic animal diversity is an essential basis for efficient and sustainable 
food production, and is likely to be of increasing importance in the more demanding production 
environments. 

In this context, one intention of the table below is to draw attention to the extent to which both the 
diversity of existing livestock breeds (column 5, 'rare breeds') and of wild relatives of livestock 
(columns 8 and 9) are at risk. 

NOTES TO TABLE 5 

This table presents information on the major domestic mammals and closely related wild species. The intention is to integrate 
data on uses, history and diversity of the former with information on the status and distribution of the latter. 

Part of the table based on data in Clutton-Brock (1981) was included in material assembled by Stephen J.G. Hall for WCMC 
(1992). Nomenclature mainly follows Wilson and Reeder (1993); an alternative treatment of generic names among large bovids 
is used by Loftus and Scherf (1993). 

Column 3, Notes on domestication: miscellaneous notes on history and geography of domestication, feral populations, etc., 

principally from authors in Mason (1984). 

Column 4, No. breeds: number of domestic breeds, from Loftus and Scherf (1993); this publication is founded on the FAO 
database being developed as part of the Global Information System for Domestic Animal Resources. 

Column 5, Rare breeds: number of domestic breeds categorised by FAO as 'Critical' (probably fewer than 1 00 breeding females 
or five or fewer breeding males) or 'Endangered' (probably fewer than 1 ,000 breeding females or 20 or fewer breeding males); 
data from Loftus and Scherf (1993). 

Column 6, Wild progenitor: name and range of wild ancestor of domestic stock, data from Clunon-Brock (1981) and Mason 
(1984). 

Column 7, Distribution of genus: generalised range and content of the genus, data from Wilson and Reeder (1993). 

Column 8, No. species: number of species in genus, data from Wilson and Reeder (19931. 

Column 9, Status of wild relatives: status category, name and range of congeneric species regarded by lUCN as globally- 
threatened. Nomenclature mainly from Wilson and Reeder (1 993); data on the status of wild relatives are based on assessments 
by the lUCN/SSC Specialist Groups, as in the 1 994 lUCN Red List (Groombridge, ed. 1 993). The status category is denoted by 
the letter on the left of each entry (see Notes to Table 2 above for definition of categories). 



58 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 

The term "wild relatives" is here taken to refer to members of the same genus according to the taxonomy of Wilson and Reeder 
(1993). 

A distinction is sometimes made between 'domestic' and 'domesticated' animals; all aspects of breeding and food supply are 
under direct human control in the former ('man-made animals'), but partially so in the latter ('exploited captives'). It is difficult 
to make a clear distinction in practice. We have dealt with mammals only, and with a mixture of truly domestic stock (dogs, 
sheep) and others less closely controlled (alpaca, reindeer). We have not dealt with domestic species among other groups of 
animals (birds, insects) nor with the very wide range of non-domestic species used in ranching and farming systems. 

There is no universally accepted system for naming domestic stock. Some authorities give the earliest valid name, even if first 
applied to domestic stock, to the wild relatives of domestic stock; others prefer to retain separate names for domestic stock 
where such a name has been in common use, and apply the next available valid name to the wild species. In the first case (eg. 
Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder, 1 9931, Capra hircus Linn. 1 758 would be applied to the wild goat and all domestic derivatives; 
in the latter case (eg. Clutton-Brock, 1 981 ), that name would be restricted to domestic stock and Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1 777 
applied to the wild goat of Eurasia. The second approach is adopted below. 



59 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 



Family 
SpaclM 



U<* 



Notes on domestication 



Canldae 



Canis fsmlllaris Companion, hunting. Domestication may have begun c 40,000 yrs ago; first evidence 1 2,000 BC in Middle 

Dog security, food. East; distinct kinds of dog evident by 5,000 BC. The Dingo is a feral domestic dog taken 

transport to Australia c 1 2,000 yrs ago. 



Falldae 



Fells caUis 
Cat 



Companion, pest Domestication perhaps linked to settled farming systems and need to limit rodent pests of 

control stored grain. Evidence from 1,600 BC in Egypt. Present around Mediterranean by 500 BC, 

to India and China by 200 BC, Europe c 500 AD. Transported worldwide by colonists. 



Mustelldae 



Mustala furo 
Ferret 



Hunting 



Possibly domesticated by c 20 AD in S Europe. Used in Europe and N Africa; range similar 
to European Rabbit & probably developed as rabbit hunter. Introduced to New Zealand. 
Some feral island populations. 



Equldaa 



Equus aslnus Transport, draught Probably domesticated in NE Africa; records from 4,000 BC in Egypt. The only domestic 

Ass or Donkey Sire of mule (ass x animal certainly of African origin. Widespread in Middle East by 100 BC. To Americas in 

horse hybrid) 16th C. Much more important than horse in Africa where present in N and W. Common in 

S and Central Asia; also present S Europe. Mostly for transport; specialised riding and pack 
breeds exist. Formerly milked, meat sometimes used. Feral asses widespread incl. Socotra, 
Galapagos, USA, Australia, Sahara etc. Numbers worldwide likely to decline, but because 
of hardiness and low cost will retain importance in less developed areas. 

Equus caballus Transport, draught, First evidence of domestic horses c 3,500 BC in central Eurasia (Ukraine). Spread through 

Horse sport Eurasia during Bronze and Iron Ages. Important early military use, to draw chariots and for 

Dam of mule (ass x riding, especially after invention of stirrups before 500 AD. Wild horses present with 

horse hybrid) Amerindians in N America but extinct by 10,000 BC; domestic horses introduced by 

European colonists. Most horses occur in South America where numbers also highest in 
relation to humans; numbers high in N America and Asia. Specialised for draught or riding, 
but both uses in decline. Feral horses on alt continents (except Antarctica). 



Sus domesticus 
Pig 



Meat 



First evidence of domestic pigs by 7,000 BC in Anatolia; widespread in Eurasia, incl. 
Egypt, by 3,000 BC. Worldwide; nearly half the world's pigs occur in non-Muslim Asia, 
mostly in China. Management varied: may free-range in woodland or be sty-fed. Pigs 
introduced to the Americas from Europe; few in Africa or Australia, NZ. Several feral 
herds. Large number of breeds. Commercial production now dominated by few lines. 
Production increasingly specialised, but stilt an important r6le for local varieties in utilising 
household waste and wild foods. Pigs have a major cultural significance in parts of SE Asia 
and Melanesia. 



Camelldae 



Camelus bactrianus Draught, transport. Fossil camels known from N America (where no extant camels) and Eurasia west to N 

Bactrian Camel meat, milk, wool, Africa. Rock drawing in Mongolia of two-humped camel may be 10,000 yrs old. First 

dung evidence of domestication in Iran & Turkmenistan c 3,000 DC. Widespread in Central Asia 

by 1st millenium BC. Main transport on 'Silk Route' between Mesopotamia and China but 
replaced by Dromedary in west and south from 1st C BC. Restricted to Central Asia, incl. 
Mongolia and China. Numbers probably in decline. 



Camelus dromedarius 
Dromedary 



Transport (draught, Remains of Dromedary or similar species at Palaeolithic sites in N Africa c 80,000 yrs age. 

meat, milk, wool. Wild camels apparently extinct in Africa by 3,000 BC but persisted in S Arabia, where 

dung) perhaps first domesticated c 3,000 BC, until early Christian times. Domestic camel to Horn 

of Africa c 2,000 BC and Egypt c 1,000 BC. Reached present importance with rise and 
spread of Arab power from 7th C onward. Most camels in NE Africa and Afghanistan- 
Pakistan-India, where numbers rising; fewer and decreasing in Mid East. Primarily for 
transport; specialised pack and riding breeds exist. Introduced to Canaries and Australia 
(where feral herds). Ability to withstand long periods without drinking and use thorny 
browse key to human use of hot deserts. 



60 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 



No. 
braadi 



Rare Wild 
braeda progenitor 



Distribution 
of genu* 



No. Status of wild relatives 
Species 



>400 



Canis lupus 

Wolf 

N America, Europe, Asia 



CanIs 

Wolves, jackals, Coyote 
N hemisphere, Africa, 
Australia Iferell 



E C. nifus USA 

E C. simensis Ethiopia 

V C. lupus 



Fells silvestris 

Wild Cat 

Europe, Asia, Africa 



Pells 

Desert, Jungle, Sand Cat etc 

Europe, Africe, Asie 



K 2 spp. 

(plus 13 other spp formerly included in 

Fells K or I) 



Mustela putorlus 

Polecat 

Europe 

M. eversmannl 7 

Steppe polecat 

E Europe, Asia 



Mustela 

Weasels, mink, polecats etc 

Europe, Asia, Americas 



16 E M. ^b//]oe/ Colombia, Ecuador 

E M. lutreola Europe 

E M. nigripes USA 

I M. africana 

K 2 spp. 



78 



Equus africanus 
African Wild Ass 
N Africa to Somalia 



Equus 

Zebras, asses, horses 

Europe, Africa, Asia 



E E. africanus Ethiopia, Somalia 
E £. grevyi Ethiopia, Kenya 

V f. hemionus, China, India, Iran, 
Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Turkmenistan 

V E. zebra, Angola, Namibia, S Africa 



357 81 Equus ferus 

Wild Horse 

formerly Americas, Europe, 
Asia 



Ex? Equus ferus 

Wild horses probably extinct in wild; 
recently restricted (Przewalskii's Horse) 
to SW Mongolia and adjacent China 
where last seen 1966. Extinct in Europe 
(Tarpanl in 1 9th C, extinct in Americas 
c 10,000 BC 



263 53 Sus scrofa 

Eurasian Wild Pig 

N Africa, Europe, Asia 



Sus 

Warty pigs. Bearded Pig 

Europe, Asia 



10 E 5. ceblfrons Philippines 

E 5. salvanius India, Bhutan?, Nepal? 
V S. verrucosus 



Camelus bactrlanus 

Bactrlan Camel 

SW Mongolia, NW China 



Camelus 

Camels 



Asia 



V C. bactrlanus 

Presumed wild (possibly feral) 

populations only in China & Mongolia 



unknown in wild, presumed 
extinct Camelus species 



61 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Title 5. Domestic livestock 



Family 
Sp«cl«« 



Note* on donMttleatlon 



Camalida* continued 

Llama glama Transport, wool Domesticated by 4,000 BC in high altitude Andean pastures, possibly centred around Lake 

Llama (coarse), meat, dung Titicaca basin of S Peru and W Bolivia. Alpaca textiles known from 500 BC. Domestic 

camelids spread to lower altitudes and along Andean chain by 2000 BC and reached 
greatest extent during Inca period; in decline since Spanish conquest in early 16th C and 
introduction of European stock. Remain important to Andean culture and for superior 
adaption to poor high altitude grazing. Pad feet may cause less pasture damage than hoofs 

of sheep. Two breeds of each species are recognised. Llamas and most alpacas held by 

Llama pacos Wool (fine) small-scale pastoralists on communal grazing; some alpaca kept in large herds by 

.. cooperatives in Peru. Not milked. Alpaca wool has high commercial value. Llama flocks in 

USA and Europe. 

Cervidaa 

Ranglfer tarandus Meat, milk, transport Fossil evidence for use of reindeer from 80,000 yrs ago, domesticated before 500 BC. 

Reindeer or Caribou Management varies: riding or milk animals may be separated from herd and fed, or herds 

may roam widely and be gathered annually for marking or slaughter. Reindeer industry 
important in north Scandinavia, NW Russia and Siberian Russia, less so in N America. 
Reindeer exploitation key to settling the far north. Wild reindeer include four major types, 
all used in husbandry systems. Some potential for better use; numbers have been 
increasing but with local indications of overgrazing. Lichens, the main winter feed, very 
vulnerable to atmospheric pollution. 



Bovldae 



Bos taunis 
Humpless, mainly 
European cattle 
(taurine) 

005 Indicus 
Humped, mainly 
Asian cattle (zebu) 



Meat, milk, transport. Domestic longhorn cattle from c 6,000 BC at several Mid East sites, later in Nile region, 
draught, dung, etc. circum-Mediterranean by 1,000 BC. First domesticated in S Europe or Anatolia-Mid East. 

Shorthorn breeds dominant from 3,000 BC. Humps, assumed result of artificial selection, 
at base of neck or over shoulder (zebu type). Zebu generally heat and parasite resistant, 
dominant in Asia and Africa (some longhorns persist eg. trypanosome resistant N'Dama in 
W Africa). Cattle were first draught farm animals, in Europe only specialised for meat or 
milk when replaced as power source by horse. Very high breed diversity, many now rare. 
British breeds to N America, Australia in 19th C, Iberian breeds earlier to S America. Cattle 
certain to continue as major farm animals for meat and milk. Much potential in tropics for 
development of local stock, eg zebu dairy breeds. Several feral herds. 

Bos frontalis Ceremonial sacrifice. No firm evidence but probably of early origin. Restricted to Bhutan, hills in NE India 

Mithan or Gayal barter bordering China and Myanmar, and Chittagong hills of Bangladesh. Typically higher 

elevation than cattle and lower than yak. Kept mainly by hill tribes, usually by men of high 
status, for use in ceremonial sacrifice, exchange, and trophy display. Not much used for 
draught or milk. Mithan generally forage freely in forest during day or for months, 
restrained at intervals, lack human control over breeding. May breed with cattle and gaur. 

Bos gwnniens Milk, transport, meat Possibly domesticated at same time as cattle, probably on Tibetan Plateau or the 

Yak Dam of 'dzo' (cattle x Himalaya. Most yak in W China, many in Mongolia, fewer in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, 

yak hybrid draught Bhutan, Afghanistan, India. Usually at 3,000-5,000 m alt. Variable size and pelage, usually 

animal) smaller than wild yak. Yak tail in trade for centuries; white tips favoured for ease of 

dyeing. Yak can graze where other livestock cannot. Much medical or religious use in 
Tibet, where milk and butter most important; used as meat source in Mongolia. Hair used 
for rope, felt; skin for leather; dung for fuel; important pack animal. 

Bos javanicus Draught, meat Domestic cattle present in SE Asia c 3,500 BC. Banteng possibly domesticated in 

Bali Cattle prehistory in SE Asia or Java. Now in many parts of Indonesia; small herds Malaysia, 

Philippines, Australia. Very uniform in type. Organised selction in 20th C: no entire males 
exported, no crossing with other cattle. Small size, highly fertile, little fat, uses poor 
pasture in hot humid conditions. Good draught animal for small fields and terraced slopes; 
much potential as meat or crossing stock. Feral herd in Cobourg Peninsula (Australia). 



Bubalus bubalis 
Water Buffalo 



Draught, milk 



Probably domesticated before 2,500 BC in Middle East. Wild ancestor occurred from 
Mesopotamia east to SE Asia; by the 1 9th C restricted to India and adjacent areas, where 
very local. Domestic buffalo reached SE Europe by 12th C where from 14th C much used 
in Muslim communities; later taken to the Americas and Australia, and Africa in 20th C. 
Breed development centred in India & Pakistan. Broadly divided into swamp buffalo in SE 
Asia, mainly for draught, and river buffalo in S Asia, mainly for milk. Do better than cattle 
on swamp and floodplain grazing. Much potential for development as meat producer. Milk 
rich in fat. Large feral herds in Australia. 



62 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 



No. 
braodt 


Ran 
brudt 


Wild 
proganKor 




Diatributlon 
of genua 


No. 
Spaclaa 


Statu* of wM ralatlvaa 




2 




Lama guanhoa 7 

Guanaco 

S Peru, W Bolivia, 

Argentina 


NW 


Lama 
Guanaco 

mountains o' central S 
America 


1 
(2) 


L. guanicoe not threatened 



unknown in wild, presumed 
Lama sp. or Lama x Vicugna 
hybrid 



The Vicufta, V. vicugna, of 
central montane S America 
sometimes included in Lama 



V Vicugna vicugna 



Rangifar tarandus 
Reindeer, Caribou 

N America, N Eurasia 



Rangifar 

as for single species 



R. tarandus not threatened as species; 
Peary Caribou R. t. pearyl (Canada) 
listed Endangered 



783 



112 



Bos primlgenlus 
Wild Ox, Aurochs 
(extinct) 



Bos 

Wild Cattle 



Asia, extinct in Europe 



Ex B. primigenius extinct, last recorded 
in Poland c 1627; formerly throughout 
Eurasia and N Africa. Much hunted in 
Neolithic times; extinct during 1st 
millenium BC in Egypt, N Africa etc. 



E Bos sauvell Cambodia, Laos, Viet 
Nam 



Bos gaurus 

Gaur 

8 & SE Asia 



V Bos gaurus 



Bos mutus 

Yak 

China: N of Tibet plateau 

(Altun Shan, Qilian Shan) 



E Bos mutus 



Bos javanicus 
Banteng 
SE Asia 



V Bos Javanicus 



62 



1 Bubalus amee 


Bubalus 


Wild Water Buffalo 


Buffalo 


Bhutan, India, Nepal, 




Thailand? 


S & SE Asia 



E Bubalus amee 

E B. depress/comis Indonesia 

E B. mindorensis Philippines 

E B. ^i/ar/fis/ Indonesia 



63 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 



Family 
Specla* 



U»* 



Notas on domestication 



Bovidaa contlnuad 



Capn hircus 
Goat 



Meat, milk, hair Goats and sheep next to be domesticated after dog. Domestic by 7,000 BC in Middle East; 

to Europe by mid Neolithic. Worldwide distribution. Great variety in form of horns and ears, 
hair colour, etc. Highest numbers in South Asia. Milk breeds developed in Switzerland have 
influenced many milk breeds worldwide. The Boer (South Africa) is major meat breed. Two 
fleece breeds: Angora (Turkey) and Cashmere (Central Asia). Very many feral populations, 
where often adverse impact on native biota. Much potential for further breed development, 
eg. for specialised tropical dairy animals. 



Ovis aries 
Sheep 



Meat, milk, wool Sheep & goats next to be domesticated after dog. Sheep in use in Mesolithic: evidence for 

domestication c 9,000 BC in Mid East; to N Africa (where no wild sheep) by 4,000 BC; to 
Americas in 16th C. Worldwide distribution; very important in Europe, Middle East, Central 
Asia. Coat of wild sheep has outer hairs over woolly inner coat; hairs lost during 
domestication to produce fine fleece breeds. Wool and milk often more important than 
meat. Wool trade basis of great wealth in mediaeval and early modern Europe. Very many 
breeds; some multi-purpose, others specialised for milk, fleece or meat. Sheep numbers in 
decline in some developed countries eg. USA, Australia, but elsewhere provide vital 
support to human life in marginal and rangeland environments. 



Cavlldae 



Cavia porcellus Meat, laboratory, One of few domestic animals of S American origin. Probably domesticated between 4,000- 

Guinea Pig companion 1,000 BC, but in use long before. Taken to Caribbean and Europe by mid 16th C. Some 

planned selective breeding during past 30 yrs. Potential for more development as meat 
source, especially in original Andean range, but broiler fowl increasingly used instead. 



Laporldae 



Oryctolagus cuniculus Meat, fur, laboratory. Kept enclosed (in leporaria) by Romans since 100 BC. Kept by mediaeval monks; newborn 
European Rabbit companion or unborn young were permissable food during Lent. Distributed worldwide by mariners; 

many feral populations. Some development of meat breeds since WWII; much potential as 

low-cost converter of surplus vegetation into meat. 



64 



Table 5. Domestic livestock 



No. 
braodt 



Ran Wild 
br*«d< proganltor 



DIatributlon 
of ganui 



No. 
Spaclaa 



Statu* of wild ralatlvaa 



313 32 Capn aegagrus Capm 

Wild Goat Goats, Markhor 

SW Asia: Turkey east to 

Pakistan Eurasia, NE Africa 



E C. /ia/cona/-/ Afghanistan, India, 

Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, 

Uzbekistan? 

E C. walla Ethiopia 

R C. caucasica, C. cylindricomis 

I C. nublana 



863 101 Ovis orlentalls 

Mouflon 

SW Asia: Turkey east to 

Iran: Mediterranean 

populations (Corsica, 

Sardinia, Cyprus! possibly 

feral primitive domestic 

stock 



Ovis 
Sheep 



Eurasia, N America 



Ovis orientalis: 

V 0. o. ophion Cyprus Mouflon 

R 0. 0. musimon European Mouflon 
I O. o. gmetini Armenian Mouflon 
K 2 remaining subspecies 

Ovis ammon Central Asia: all subspecie 
threatened (4 E, 3 II 

V O. canadensis, 3 subspecies 

V C. nivicola, 1 subspecies 



O. vignei: all subspecies listed 
threatened (as 0. orientaiis subspp)(3 E, 
1 V, 1 I, 1 K) 



Cavia aperea widespread in 


Cavia 


S America, or 


Cavles 


C. tschudii Peru, S Bolivia, 




NW Argentina, N Chile 


South Americe 



4 
(5) 



Orycto/egus cunhulus 

European Rabbit 

W & S Europe to NW Africa 



Oryctofagus 

original range probably tberia, 

possibly NW Africa; now 
introduced to most 
continents & worldwide as 
domestic form 



Oryctofagus one of 8 monospecific 

genera in the family, which contains 54 

species in 1 1 genera. 

O. cuniculus is not listed threatened but 

15 other species are: 

E Bunolagus mont/cutan's, Caprolagus 

hispidus, Lepus flav'igularis, Nesolagus 

netscheri, Pentalagus fumessi, 

ftomero/agus diazi, SyMlagus graysoni, 

S. insonus 

V Brachyfagus idahoens/s 

R Lepus insu/arfs 

also 2 species I, 3 K 



65 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 6. Marine resources 

Oceans cover 71 % of the world's surface. They hold a significant proportion of living biomass and play 
an ill-understood though evidently vital part in regulating climate. Much remains to be discovered about 
the diversity of life in the seas. It is w/ell known that diversity at the highest taxonomic levels (Phyla) 
is much greater in the sea than on land or in freshwater, but is has generally been assumed that species 
diversity is much lower than on land. Recent work, discussed in more detail in Global Biodiversity 
(WCMC, 1992), indicates that this may not be the case: studies of some marine environments, 
particularly bottom sediments, show extremely high levels of invertebrate species diversity, the great 
majority comprising previously unknown species. 

The seas provide many biological resources used by humans. In the form of marine fisheries they 
provide by far the most important source of wild protein, a source which is of particular importance 
to many subsistence communities around the world and which makes use of a wide range of animal 
species, notably fishes, molluscs and crustaceans. Marine algae are also an increasingly important 
foodstuff, notably in the Far East, with current annual world production of around two million tonnes. 
Marine organisms are also proving extremely fruitful sources of pharmaceuticals and other materials 
used in medicines. More minor although locally important uses include exploitation of coastal resources 
for building materials (eg. coral limestone and mangrove poles and timber) and other industrial products 
(eg. tannins from mangroves). 

Traditionally, all marine resources outside territorial waters (usually up to 1 2 nautical miles from shore) 
were considered 'open-access' resources. This covered most of the world's oceans and virtually all 
deep-sea areas. These resources were theoretically highly susceptible to overexploitation, although, 
with a few exceptions (eg. whales), harvesting technologies until relatively recently were not 
sufficiently sophisticated to pose a serious threat. In the past few decades this has changed 
dramatically and many open-ocean resources have been gravely depleted leading to the collapse of a 
number of fisheries, sometimes bringing individuals and nations into conflict. With the introduction of 
the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea 
(UNCLOS), which allows nations control over resources (including living resources) in an area up to 200 
nautical miles offshore, a far greater proportion of the world's seas now come within the control of 
individual nations. This should theoretically allow better management of resources in these areas, 
although this generally has yet to materialise. 

Access to marine resources is not equitably distributed amongst the world's nations. Most obviously, 
some 39 states are landlocked, ie. have no seaboard (although three of these have seaboards on the 
Caspian, which is functionally a sea). Those that do have seaboards show great variation in length of 
coastline, and area of territorial waters and EEZs, both absolutely and relative to their land areas. They 
also show great variation in their capacities to exploit marine resources, both on the high seas and 
within their territorial waters and EEZs. 

NOTES TO TABLE 6 

This table integrates several kinds of data relating to marine biodiversity, fishery production and protection systems. 

Kay: 

* An asterisk against any figure indicates that an explanatory note is given below. 
Indicates lack of data. 

_ In column 3 (EEZI indicates that an EEZ has not been formally declared, the adjacent figure is the marine area 

potentially subject to EEZ declaration. 
F FAO estimate of catch (where reported data incomplete or missing). 

# In column 6 (seagrass) indicates that pasture-forming species are present. 

IS) In column 1 5 (marine international conventions) indicates that the state is a signatory of the convention or agreement 

cited but has not ratified, absence of this annotation indicates that the state is a full party to the convention cited. 

Note that further keys to abbreviated names are given in the column notes below. 



Table 6. Marine resources 

Column 2, Coastllna: Data from Table 22.6 in World Resources Institute (1994). A coastline does not have a finite length and 
the magnitude of any estimate of its length will depend heavily on the scale and projection of the map from which it is derived. 
Many island groups are represented by estimates for major islands only; as noted below. Yugoslavia: former Federal Republic 
of Yugoslavia. Cook Islands: Rarotonga only. Fadaratsd States of Micronesia: Babeldaob & Yap only. French Polynesia: Huahine, 
Lifou, MarS, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahuata & Tahiti only. Tonga: Niuafo'ou, Tongatapu & Vava'u only. Vanuatu: Ambae, 
Ambrym, Aneityum, Efate, Epi, Erromango, Espiritu Santo, Hiu, Maewo, Malakula, Pentecost, Santa Maria, Tanna & Vanua Lava. 
Wallls & Futuna: Uvea & Futuna only. British Virgin Is: Tortola Island. Netherlands Antjllat: Bonaire & Curagao. St Vincent & the 
Grenadines: Saint Vincent. Turks & Caicos Is: North Caicos. USA: coastline includes Hawaii. St Helena: data in parentheses for 
Tristan da Cunha & Gough. UK subantarctic Is: East Falkland only. French subantarctic Is: Amsterdam & Possession. 

Column 3, EEZ: The figures indicate the approximate extent of the marine area of nations (together with their territories and 
dependencies). The marine area extends to a potential maximum of 200 nautical miles from the coast, but will be set at less than 
200 nm where agreement has been reached over the intersection of marine areas of adjacent states. Data from Fenwick (1 992). 
Germany: marine area as for former Federal Republic. Yugoslavia: EEZ for the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Yemen: 
upper figure for former North Yemen, lower figure for South Yemen; national maritime legislation and claims not yet unified. 
Eritrea: marine area of former Ethiopia; following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia has no coastline although a July 1993 
agreement gives the latter access to ports. 

Column 4, Fisheries: Data from FAO (1991). FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook: catches and landings 199 1. Vol. 72. USA: Hawaii 
is included in both figures. Eritrea: data for the former Ethiopia. 

Column S, Mangroves: This column is an attempt to collate data estimating the area of mangrove vegetation. In several cases 
more than one estimate is provided in order to reflect existing uncertainties. Where two figures are given the upper, unless 
otherwise specified, is from Fisher & Spalding (1993). Indonesia: figure in parentheses from Soemodihardjo (1986). Malaysia: 
upper figure: Chan et al. 1993; lower figure: Fisher & Spalding 1993. Pakistan: lower figure, Fisher & Spalding (1993) based 
on LANDSATimages quoted in UNESCO (1 992); upper figure, Ansari (1 986). Philippines: lower figure. Technical Staff, Philippine 
National Mangrove Committee (1986). Singapore: lower figure, Corlett(1986); upper figure, Ming (1990). Sri Lanka: figure from 
Legg in litt.; data are based on analysis of satellite imagery as of early 1992. An additional 500-700 ha in stands <20 m wide 
may also exist. FAO (1981) give 120,000 ha. Jayewardene (1986) gives c 4000 ha. Thailand: upper figure, Klankamsorn & 
Charuppat (1982); lower figure, Aksornkoae (1993). Fiji: Watling (1985). Northern Marianas: Dahl (1980). Vanuatu: David 
(1986). Anguilla: Bacon (1993b). Antigua and Barbuda: upper figure. Putney (1982); lower figure. Bacon (1993a). Bahamas: 
lower figure Bacon (1993b). Belize: upper figure. Gray efs/. (1990); lower figure, Saengerers/. (1983). Cayman Islands: lower 
figure. Bacon (1993b). Cuba: lower figure, Padron (1992). Dominica: Bacon 1993a. Dominican Republic: lower figure, Saenger 
etal. (1983). El Salvador: upper figure, Saenger et al. (1983); lower figure, Jimenez (1992). Grenada: Bacon ( 1 993a) (49 ha 
for Grenada, 67 for Grenada Grenadines). Bacon (1993b) 149 ha for Grenada. One of these figures is cleariy a typographical 
error. Guadeloupe: upper figure, Saenger etal. (1983); lower figure, Fisher & Spalding ( 1 993) . Honduras: upper figure, Jimenez 
(1992); lower figure, Fisher & Spalding (1993). Jamaica: upper figure, Fisher & Spalding (1993), believed questionable; lower 
figure, Bacon (1993). Martinique: lower figure, Saenger et al. (1983). Mexico: lower figure, Y^nez-Arancibia et al. (1993). 
Monserrat: Bacon (1993a). Panama; lower figure, D'Croz (1993). Snedaker (pers. comm., Fisher & Spalding) notes other 
estimates vary from 33,700 ha to 505,600 ha. St Kitts-Nevis: lower figure, Fisher & Spalding (1993); upper figure. Bacon 
(1993a). St Lucia: upper figure, CCA/IRF (19881; lower figure. Bacon (1993a). St Vincent and the Grenadines: Bacon (1993a). 
Turks and Caico* Is: Bacon (1 993b). Trinidad and Tobago: lower figure, Bacon (1 993b). Snedaker (ibid.) notes other estimates 
range from 5000 ha to 1 1,000 ha. USA (excluding Hawaii) lower figure, Odum et al. (1982). Virgin Islands (British): Bacon 
(1993b). Brazil: upper figure, Herz (1991); lower figure: Saenger er al. (1983). Colombia: lower figure, Alvarez Ledn (1993). 
Ecuador: lower figure, MAG (1991 1. French Guiana: lower figure, FAO (1981); uppnr figure. Anon. (1979). Guyana: upper figure, 
Saenger etal. (1983); lower figure: Fisher & Spalding ( 1 993) . Peru: lower figure, Echevarria & Sarabia (1993). Venezuela: lower 
figure, MARNR (1 986). Snedaker [ibid.) notes that FAO/PNUMA give an estimate of 260,000 ha but this is believed to reflect 
only the larger areas of potentially commercial forest. Mauritania: Gowthorpe & Lamarche (1993). Nigeria: lower figure, FAO 
(1981), taken to represent the extent of closed-canopy mangrove. Sierra Leone: upper figure, from Johnson & Johnson (1993); 
lower figure, Snedaker (ibid.). Kenya: upper figure, NBU (1992); lower figure, Ruwa (1993). 

Column 6, Seagrass: Information on seagrasses is sparse and incompletely collated at the global level, however, seagrass 
habitats are of considerable importance as a basis for fishery production, as a food source for certain threatened animals (eg. 
Green Turtle, Dugong), and for coastal stabilisation. The data in this column are primarily derived from the standard taxonomic 
monograph on seagrasses (Den Hartog, 1970; and see Phillips and Mei^ez, 1 988) and relate to distribution records for specimens 
of species recognised by Den Hartog. If in italics, a number in this column is the number of species present according to 
UNEP/IUCN (1 988). A # sign indicates that seagrass vegetation is present in the form of pastures. It must be emphasised that 
data in this column are known to be incomplete: although species richness for eg. Australia or Japan is likely to be fairly 
represented, comprehensive data on the seagrass flora and vegetation of small island states are not readily available. Cook 
Islands: UNEPMUCN (1 988) notes that seagrass vegetation is absent from the Cook Islands. It is unclear if this means that no 
species of seagrass are present. Tonga: Dahl (1980) notes beds of Halodule uninervis and Syringodium isoetifolium. Western 
Samoa: Dahl (1 980) notes Halophila and Syringodium near Namu'a Island. Dominica: beds mainly of Syringodium With occasional 
Thalassia. Dominican Republic: Thalassia and Syringodium. St Vincent and the Grenadines: Thalassia and Syringodium. 

Column 7, Coral Reefs: This column includes an edited version of information collated for WCMC (1 992) by Caroline Harcourt, 
mainly derived from UNEP/IUCN (1988). The world distribution of coral reefs is shown in Figure 4. 



67 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Column 8, Inshore marina fithat: This column includes sample estimates of the number of fishes recorded In inshore marine 
waters; where coral reefs are present, a high proportion of these fishes are coral reef species. Data mainly from WCMC (1 994), 
collated from two main sources: a draft version of FISHBASE, a database being developed by the International Center for Living 
Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United 
Nations and the Commission of the European Communities; and also from the lUCN/SSC Coral Reef Fish Specialist Group, with 
J. Hawkins, Ocean Voice International at the University of the Virgin Islands. Guam: coral reef species only. New Caladonia: coral 
reef species only. Ecuador: species estimate in parentheses is for the Galapagos Islands. UK subantarctic Islands: South Georgia 
only: benthic species (10 of which are endemic; Oldfield, 1987). Kiribati: fish species at Onotona Atoll, no country total is 
available. 

Column 9, Marina turtles: This column indicates which species of sea turtles nest in each country; non-nesting records are not 
included. Data from multiple sources, including Bjorndal, K. (ed) (1982), Dodd (1988), Groombridge and Luxmoore (1989), 
M^rquez, (1990). St Helena: C. mydas nests at Ascension only. 
C. caretta Caretta caretta, Loggerhead 

C. mydas Chelonia mydas, Green Turtle 

D. coriacea Dermochelys coriacea, Leatherback 

E imbricata Eretmochelys imbricata, Hawksbill Turtle 

L kempii Lepidochelys kempii, Kemp's Ridley 

L. olivacea Lepidochelys olivacea, Olive Ridley 

N, depressus Natator depressus, Flatback 

Column 10, Inshore cetacea: This column indicates which Inshore whales and dolphins are known or suspected to occur 

regularly in each country. 'Inshore' species here comprise those which have very few pelagic records, or are unknown away 

from coastal waters. Data from a variety of sources, as collated in Groombridge (1993). 

A. dioptrica Australophocaena dioptrica, Spectacled Porpoise 

C. commersonii Cephalorhynchus commersonii, Commerson's Dolphin 

C. eutropia Cephalorhynchus eutropia, Black Dolphin 

C. heavisidii Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Heaviside's Dolphin 

C. hectori Cephalorhynchus hectori, White Headed Dolphin, Hectors Dolphin 

D. leucBS Delphinapterus leucas, White Whale, Beluga 
L australis Lagenorhynchus australis, Peale's Dolphin 
L. obscurus Lagenorhynchus obscurus, Dusky Dolphin 
M. monoceros Monodon monoceros, Narwal 

N. phocaenoides Neophocaena phocaenoides, Finless Porpoise 

O. brevirostris Orcaella brevirostris, Irrawaddy Dolphin 

P, dalli Phocoenoides dalli, Dall's Porpoise 

P. phocoena Phocoena phocoena, Common Porpoise, Harbour Porpoise 

P. sinus Phocoena sinus, Vaquita 

P. spinipinnis Phocoena spinipinnis, Burmeister's Porpoise 

S. chinensis Sousa chinensis, Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin 

S. fluviatilis Sotalia fluviatilis, Tucuxi 

S. teuzii Sousa teuzii, Atlantic Hump-backed Dolphin 

Column 1 1 , Other marina mammals: This column includes otters, seals and sea lions, and sirenians restricted to coastal habitats. 
Of the three manatees, Trichecus inunguis appears restricted to freshwaters in Amazonia and is excluded from this list. Data 
mainly from Foster-Turley et aL (1990), Reijnders et al. (1993), Ridgway and Harrison (1981). Monachus monachus: Italy, 
Sardinia; Portugal, Madeira only; Spain, Chafarinas Islands only. St Helena: A. tropicalis, M. leonina found on the Tristan da 
Cunha group only. USA: Hawaii & central Pacific depend. Monachus schuinslandi present in Hawaii group only. Otariidae, 
Odobenldaa, Phocldae: species are listed for the countries in which breeding populations are known except for species 
associated with arctic and antarctic pack ice, and Phoca caspica, which breeds on ice in the northern Caspian but occurs mainly 
in the southern Caspian during summer. 

E. lutris Enhydra lutris. Sea Otter 
L. feline Lutra felina, Marine Otter 

A. australis Arctocephalus australis. South American Fur Seal 

A. forsteri Arctocephalus forsteri. New Zealand Fur Seal 

A. galapagoensis Arctocephalus galapagoensis, Galapagos Fur Seal 

A. gezelle Arctocephalus gazelle, Antarctic Fur Seal 

A. philipii Arctocephalus philipii, Juan Fernandez Fur Seal 

A. pusillus Arctocephalus pusillus. South African Fur Seal, Australian Fur Seal 

A. townsendi Arctocephalus townsendi, Guadalupe Fur Seal 

A. tropicalis Arctocephalus tropicalis, Subantarctic Fur Seal 

C. cristata Cystophora cristate. Hooded Seal 

C. ursinus Callorhinus ursinus. Northern Fur Seal 

E. barbatus Erignatus barbatus. Bearded Seal 

E. jubatus Eumetopias jubatus, SteWer's Sea Uon 

H. grypus Halichoerus grypus, Grey Seal 

H. leptonyx Hydrurge leptonyx. Leopard Seal 



68 



Table 6. Marine resources 

L. weddellii Leptonychotes weddellii, Weddell Seal 

L. carcinophagus Lobodon carcinophagus, Crabeater Seal 

M. anguso'rostris Mirounga angustirostris , Northern Elephant Seal 

M. leonina Mirounga leonina, Southern Elephant Seal 

M. monachus Monachus monachus, Mediterranean Monk Seal 

M. schauinslandi Monachus schauinslandi, Hawaiian Monk Seal 

N. cinerea Neophoca cinerea, Australian Sea Lion 

O. byronia Otaria byronia, Southern Sea Lion 

O. rosmaws Odobenus rosmarus, Walrus 

O. rossii Ommatophoca rossii, Ross Seal 

P. caspica Phoca caspica, Caspian Seal 

P. fasciata Phoca fasciata, Ribbon Seal 

P. groenlandica Phoca groenlandica, Harp Seal 

P. hispida Phoca hispida, Ringed Seal 

P. hookeri Phocarctos hookeri, Hooker's Sea Lion 

P. largha Phoca largha, Large Seal 

P. vitulina Phoca vitulina, Harbour Seal 

Z. californianus Zaiophus calif ornianus, Californian Sea Lion 

U. maritimus Ursus maritimus, Polar Bear 

D. dugon Dugong dugon, Dugong 

T. manatus Trichechus manatus, Caribbean Manatee 

T. senegalensis Trichecus senegalensis, West African Manatee 

Column 12, PA N°; Column 13, PA total area: Number of coastal and marine protected areas. Source WCMC Protected Areas 
Database, 9 August 1 994. Norway: second estimates for protected area number and size are those for Svalbard and Jan Mayen. 
Eritrea: data for pre-secession Ethiopia coast. 

Column 14, Oc. Inst: This column provides an indication of the number of institutions working exclusively on, or having clear 
emphasis on, oceanographic issues and marine biodiversity research. No attempt is made to include all organisations having a 
major impact on the marine environment (eg. in the field of coastal engineering and planning), and the data are certainly not 
globally comprehensive. Data from Bartz etal., (1 992), Chua etal. (1 989), Morcos and El-Sayed (1 990), and UNEP/FAO, (1 985). 

Column 1 5, Conventions: This column indicates which countries have signed or are party to a number of major international 
conventions that are entirely marine in focus (eg. UNCLOS), or have a major marine component (eg. Convention on the 
Conservation of Migratory Species). Although the IWC is included, lack of space prevented inclusion of the large number of 
agreements covering finfish. Based on information in WCMC (1992), mainly as provided by the lUCN Environmental Law Centre, 
Bonn. We much appreciate the assistance of the following in providing more current information: Anholt Habr, P. (Editorial 
Assistant, Treaty Section, United Nations). Hunter, V. (International Whaling Commission), September 1994. Moutou, B. (Legal 
Counsel, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme). Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory 
Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Bonn, Germany 

Key: 

UNCLOS: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. States Party to UNCLOS are shown graphically in Figure 4. This 

Convention entered into force on 1 6 November 1 994. NB: the map shows the former Yugoslavia. 

Liv. Res. High Seas: Convention on Pishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas. 

High Seas: Convention on the High Seas. 

CMS: Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. 

CCAMLR: The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. 

Mediterranean: Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution. 

Persian Gulf: Kuwait Regional Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution. 

W & Cent. Africa: Convention for the Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment 

of the West and Central African Region. 

SE Pacific: Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas of the South-East Pacific. 

Red Sea: Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and of the Gulf of Aden Environment. 

Caribbean: Convention for the Protection and Development of the Wider Caribbean Region. 

E. Africa: Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern 
African Region. 

SPREP: Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region. 
IWC: International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coast- EEZ Marin* 

Una 11,000 Rahariaa 

(km) km') (1,000 mt) 

% loM 

flthtry 



Mangrovai (km') Saa- Coral raafa 

grata 
(app.) 



EUROPE 



Albania 


418 


- 12 


F6.6 
55% 


Not present 




Not present 


Balgium 


64 


_ 3 


39.4 
38% 


Not present 


1 


Not present 


Bosnia and Herzegovina 


c20 


- 


- 


Not present 


■ 


Not present 


Bulgaria 


354 


33 


F41.4 
83% 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Croatia 


- 




■ 


Not present 


7 


Not present 


Denmark 


3,379 


_ 1,464 


1,756.6 
98% 


Not present 


2 


Not present 


Estonia 


1,393 


- 


■ 


Not present 


• 


Not present 


Finland 


1,126 


- 98 


75.6 
31% 


Not present 


1 


Not present 



3,427 7,201 



766.8 
34% 



Not present #4 Not present 



Germany 


2,389 


• _ 41 


253.4 
84% 


Not present 


2 


Not present 


Gibraltar 


- 


see UK 





Not present 


- 


Not present 


Greece 


13,676 


_ 505 


F 138.9 
33% 


Not present 


#4 


Not present 


Iceland 


4,988 


867 


1,050.7 
9996 


Not present 


1 


Not present 


Ireland 


1,448 


- 380 


F 239.9 
9996 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Italy 


4,996 


- 652 


491.6 
90% 


Not present 


#4 


Not present 


Latvia 


531 


- 


■ 


Not present 




Not present 


Lithuania 


108 


- 


■ 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Malta 


140 


_ 1,277 


0.7 
100% 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Monaco 


- 


_ 1 


- 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Netherlands 


451 


- 168 


439.0 
9996 


Not present 


2 


Not present 



70 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore Marine 
marine turtlea 
fUhe* 



Inihore cetacea 



Other marine 
mammals 



PA PA total 

N° area (km') 



Oc. 
Inst 



Marine International conventions 



- - 


- 


M. monachusl 


9 


240 


High Seas, Mediterranean 


- - 


p. phocoana 


P. vhullna 




- 


- UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, CMS, CCAMLR 


- - 


■ 


- 


- 


- 


- UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas. 


- - 


P. phocoana 




2 


15 


1 UNCLOS (SI, High Seas 


- - 


■ 




19 


2,000 


High Seas 


- - 


P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P. vitullna 


39 


2,800 


- UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas, CMS, IWC 


■ - 


■ 


H. grypus 
P. hisplda 


5 


530 


- - 


- - 


P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P hisplda 


2 


26 


- UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas, CMS, IWC 



P. phocoana 



H. grypus 
P. vitullna 



114 



10,000 



UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas (SI, CMS, 
CCAMLR, Mediterranean, 
Caribbean, E. Africa, SPREP, 
IWC 



- - 


P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P. vitullna 


38 


6,700 


2 High Seas, CMS, CCAMLR, IWC 


- - 


- 


■ 


1 


04 




C. caretta 


• 


M. monachus 


14 


1,3IX) 


- UNCLOS (SI, CMS, CCAMLR, 
Mediterranean 


■ - 


M. monocaros 
P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P. vitullna 


8 


5,000 


- UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas (SI, High Seas (SI 


- - 


P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P. vitullna 


9 


72 


- UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas (SI, High Seas (SI, CMS, 
IWC 


- C. earatta 7 




M. monachus 


61 


2,8(30 


1 UNCLOS (SI, High Seas, CMS, 
CCAMLR, Mediterranean 




■ 


H. grypus 
P. hisplda 


1 


150 


High Seas 


- - 


- 


H. grypus 


- 


- 


- - 


118 - 


■ 


■ 


1 


0.1 


UNCLOS, Mediterranean 


- - 


P. phocoana 


■ 


2 


1.0 


1 UNCLOS (SI, CMS, 
Mediterrenean, IWC 


- - 


P. phocoana 


H. grypus 
P. vitullna 


12 


2,100 


4 UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas, CMS, 
CCAMLR, Caribbean, IWC 



71 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



EUROPE contlnusd 



Norway 



Coatt- 


EEZ 


Marina 


llna 


11,000 


Hahariaa 


(kml 


km') 


(1,000 mt) 
% tout 
nth»rt 


5,832 


2,025 


2,095.4 
99% 



Mangrovai (km') Saa- Coral raafa 

grass 
(spp.) 



Not present 



1 Not present 



Poland 


491 


29 


409.4 
90% 


Not present 


1 


Not present 


Portugal 


1,693 


1,774 


322.8 
99% 


Not present 


2 


Not present 


Romania 


225 


32 


84.4 
68% 


Not present 


2 


Not present 


Slovenia 


- 


- 


- 


Not present 




Not present 


Spain 


4,964 


1,219 


1,320.9 
r98% 


Not present 


#3 


Not present 


Sweden 


3,218 


_ 155 


239.5 
98% 


Not present 


#2 


Not present 


Ukraine 


2,782 


- 




Not present 




Not present 


United Kingdom 


12,429 


_ 1,785 


803.9 
95% 


Not present 


2 


Not present 


former Yugoslavia 


• 3,935 


• _ 53 


23.6 
66% 


Not present 


#3 


Not present 


ASIA 


Azerbaijan 




• 


■ 


Not present 


• 


Not present 


Bahrain 


161 


• 8 


7.6 
100% 


- 


«3 


The only significant reefs are Fasht 
Adhm off the north-east coast and 
Fasht al Jarim in the north. 


Banglades)> 


580 


77 


258.9 
2996 


4,100 


■ 


Not present 



BIOT 



#1 The territory comprises five atolls 
and two areas of raised reef 
covering c 21,000km^ of shallow 
water; Great Chagos Bank may be 
the world's largest atoll. 



Brunei 



161 • 24 



1.6 
34% 



70 



There is negligible reef formation. 



Cambodia 



443 56 



36.4 
33% 



100 



1 Reefs may occur around some 
coastal islands. 



72 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshora Marina 
marina turtlaa 
flahaa 



Inahora catacaa 



Othar marina 
mammala 



PA PA total 

N° araa (km') 



Oc. Marina Intamational convantlona 
Inat 



D. leucas H. grypus 14 590 - UNCLOS (S), CMS, CCAMLR, 

M. monocems P. vHulina IWC 

P. phocoena P. hisplda '5 '35,000 

C. crista ta 

f. barbatus 

U. marltimus 

P. phocoana H. grypus 6 730 2 UNCLOS (S), High Seas, 

CCAMLR 

P. phocoena M. monachus 20 1,600 4 UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 

Seas, High Seas, CMS 

P. phocoena ■ 11 6,500 - UNCLOS (S), High Seas 

1 ? - High Seas 

P. phocoena M. monachus 38 1,100 3 UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 

Seas, High Seas, CMS, 
CCAMLR, Mediterranean, IWC 

45 1,600 1 

4 1,800 

96 12,000 2 

jsl 16 120 

P, caspica 3 1,200 

133 - S. chinensis D. dugon 1 0.5 1 UNCLOS, Persian Gulf 

N. phocaenofdes 

C. mydas 0. brevirosvis D. dugon 6 460 - UNCLOS (SI 

f. imbricata S. chinensis 

L olivacea N. phocaenoides 

702 C. mydas - • .... 

£. imbricata 

• ■ O. brevirosvis D. dugon 5 170 2 UNCLOS IS) 

5. chinensis 
N. phoceenoides 

C. mydas 0. brevirosvis D. dugon - - - UNCLOS IS), Liv. Res. High 

E. imbricata S. chinensis Seas, High Seas 

N. phocaenoides 



- - 


p. phocoena 


H. grypus 
P. vitulina 
P. hispida 


45 


1,600 


1 UNCLOS IS), CMS, CCAMLR, 
IWC 


- - 


P. phocoena 




4 


1,800 


- UNCLOS IS), High Seas 


- 


P. phocoena 


H. grypus 
P. vitulina 


96 


12,000 


2 Liv. Res. High Seas, High Seas, 
CMS, CCAMLR, Caribbean, 
SPREP IS), IWC 


- ■ 


■ 


M. monachus^ 


16 


120 


- UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, Mediterranean 



73 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Cout- 


EEZ 


Marin* 


IM 


(1.000 


R»h*ri«i 


(km) 


km") 


(1.000 mt) 
% tofi 
tlthtry 



MangrovM (km') 



Sea- 

grati 
(•PP) 



ASIA continued 



China 



14.500 



964 



7,606.8 
68% 



200 *5 There is patchy coral growth on the 

mainland. Reefs principally found 
around the offshore islands and 
archipelagos in the Nan Hai; the 
most important area being Xisha 
Qundao. South Hainan has fringing 
reefs. 



Cyprus 


648 


• 99 


2.6 
97% 


Not present 


#2 


Not present 


Georgia 


310 


• 


- 


Not present 


- 


Not present 


Hong Kong 


733 


see UK 


225.0 

97% 


Present, no area data. 


1 


There are no true reefs. 



India 



12,700 



2.015 2,336.1 

5B% 



3,565 



Reefs, mainly fringing, are present in 
a few scattered places: the Gulf of 
Kutch in the north-west: off the 
southern coast: and around a few 
small islands opposite Sri Links. 



Indonesia 



54.716 



5,409 



2.380.0 
75% 



42.510 
(42.5431 



14,000 islands have reefs, with the 
most prolific development in the 
east of the country. Fringing, patch 
and barrier reefs are found; there are 
few atolls. 



3,180 



156 



195.0 
70% 



237 #2 Substantial reefs surround some 

islands along the easternmost 
stretch of the Gulf coast. Reefs are 
also found around the bays of Chah 
Bahar and PQzm in the Gulf of 
Oman. 



Iraq 



58 



F 3.0 
25% 



273 



23 



3.4 
16% 



Most of the short coastline on the 
Gulf of Aqaba has either fringing 
reef or large offshore coral knolls. 



Japan 



13,685 



3,861 



9,102.9 
98% 



#1 1 Reefs of Okinawa Prefecture cover c 
8(X)km^: coral assemblages further 
north cover c 60km^. 



Jordan 


27 


• 1 


2.0 
9% 


7 


» 


A fringing reef runs discontinuously 
along 13km of coast. 


Kazakhstan 


2.909 


• 




Not present 


. 


Not present 


Korea DPR 


2,495 


130 


1,600.1 
F94% 


- 


- 


- 


Korea Republic 


2,413 


• 348 


2,484.9 
33% 


- 


1 


- 



74 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inthora 


Marina turtlaa 


Inthora catacaa 


Othar marina 


PA 


PA total 


marina 






mammala 


tt' 


araa (km'l 


flihaa 












(■pp.) 













Oc. Marina Intamatlonal convantlons 
Inat 



C. mydas 



S. chlnensis 
N. phocaenoides 
P. phocoena 



D. dugon 



39 



9,200 



UNCLOS (S), Uv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas, IWC 



96 


C. 
C. 


caretta 
mydas 


■ 


M. monachusl 


9 


100 


UNCLOS, High Seas, 
Mediterranean 


- 


■ 




P. phocoena 


■ 


1 


38 


- - 


150 


■ 




S. chlnensis 
N. phocaenoides 


■ 


15 


280 


- - 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. Imbricate 
L olh/acea 

D. corlacaa 



0. brevlrostrls 
S. chlnensis 
N. phoceenoldes 



0. dugon 



112 



4,000 



5 UNCLOS (51, CMS, CCAMLR, 
IWC 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
£ Imbricate 
L olniacea 

D. corlacea 



O. brevlrostrls 
S. chlnensis 
N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



92 94,000 



17 UNCLOS, Uv. Res. High Seas 
(S), High Seas 



C. mydas 
E Imbricate 



S. chlnensis 
N. phocaenoides 



P. caspica 
D. dugon 



6,800 



UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas (SI, High Seas (S), Persian 
Gulf 



S. chlnensis 
N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 
D. dugon 



2 UNCLOS, Persian Gulf 



C. caretta 
C. mydas? 



S. chlnensis 



19 65 



1 Liv. Res. High Seas (SI, High 
Seas, CMS, Mediterranean 



C caretta 
C. mydas 
E. Imbricate 



N. phocaenoides 
P. phocoena 
P. dalll 



C. urslnus 
P. vitullne 
P. hisplde 
P. fescieta 
E. berbatus 



86 12,000 



5 UNCLOS (SI, High Seas, 
CCAMLR, IWC 



D. dugon 



■ ■ 


- 


D. dugon 


■ 


- 


1 


Red Sea 


. 


. 


P. caspica 


1 


180 


- 




■ - 


N. phocaenoides 
P. phocoena 
P. dalll 


■ 


- 


- 


- 


UNCLOS (SI 


- - 


N. phocaenoides 
P. phocoene 
P. delll 


- 


5 


3,400 




UNCLOS (SI, CCAMLR, IWC 



75 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coa>t- 


EEZ 


Marina 


liM 


(1,000 


FIthariaa 


(km) 


km'l 


(1,000 mt) 
K tout 
flthtry 



Mangrovat (km') 



Saa- 

grata 
(app.) 



Coral reafa 



ASIA contkiuad 



12 



1.9 
(0096 



Thre is less than 4km^ of reef, 
mostly around offshore coral cays. 



225 



23 



1.7 
34% 



Malaysia 



4,675 



476 



605.5 
98% 



6,300 #7 Typically, shallow fringing reefs and 

6,412 isolated coral patches occur on the 

east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, 
including all offshore islands. There 
are fewer off the west coast. 
Islands off the west coast of Sabah 
have fringing reefs and Sarawak has 
some offshore coral communities. 



644 



959 



80.7 

too% 



Present, no area data 



#2 The 1 300 islands all form parts of 
atolls and other coralline structures, 
and are surrounded by extensive 
reefs. 



Myanmar 



3,060 



594.1 
77% 



5,175 



Reefs are present around offshore 
islands, particularly the Mergui 
Archipelago. There are none known 
along the mainland coast. 



Oman 



2,092 562 117.8 

100% 



20 



Major coral growth is restricted to 
four areas: the Musandem Peninsula 
in the Gulf; the Masqat area in the 
Gulf of Oman; west of Jazirat 
Masirah; and around the islands of 
Zufar and Kuria Muria in the Arabian 
Sea. 



Pakistan 



1,046 



319 



399.6 
78% 



2,617 
2,830 



Coral communities may be present 
but few data are available. 



Philippines 



1,699.4 
74% 



2,321 
4,000 



An estimated 27,000km' of coral 
reefs or coral communities are found 
throughout the archipelago, with the 
largest concentration in the south- 
west. 



Qatar 



563 



24 



8.1 
100% 



There is extensive coral growth on 
the northern and eastern coasts. 



Russia 



37,653 



Not present 



Not present 



76 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore 


Marin* turtlat 


Inihora caucaa 


Othar marina 


PA 


PA total 


mariiw 






mammals 


N° 


araa (km^ 


fUhu 












(«PP) 













Oc. Marina Intamational convantlons 
Inst 



100 C. mydas 

f. imbricatB ? 



S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 



O. dugon 



260 



3 UNCLOS, Persian Gulf 



1 UNCLOS (SI. Uv. Res. High 
Seas (S), High Seas ISI, 
Mediterranean 



C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L. olivacea 

D. coriacea 



O. bravirostris 
S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



101 



7,900 



5 UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas 



C. mydas 
f. imbricata 



UNCLOS (S) 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olivacea 



0. brevirostfis 
S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoidas 



0. dugon 



3 280 



UNCLOS (SI 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olivacea 



S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



19 7,200 



2 UNCLOS, Persian Gulf, IWC 



C. mydas 
L. olivacaa 



S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 



0. dugon 



3 350 



UNCLOS (SI, Uv. Res. High 
Seas (S), High Sea^ IS), CMS 



C2000 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



O. bravirostris 

S. chinensis 

N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



79 8,300 



7 UNCLOS, CMS 



C. mydas ? 
E. imbricata 



S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 



3 UNCLOS (S), Persian Gulf 
1 UNCLOS (SI, High Seas, IWC 



D. leucas 
M. monoceros 
P. phocoena 
P. dalli 



E. lutris 

E. jubatus 
C. ursinus 
O. rosmarus 
H. grypus 
P. vitulina 
P. largha 
P. hispida 
P. caspica 
P. groenlandica 
P. fasciata 
E. barbatus 



1 1 29,000 



U. maritimus 



77 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coast- EEZ Marin* 

Una (1.000 Flahariat 

(km) km') (1,000 mt) 

% totti 

nth»ry 



Mangrovaa (km') 



Saa- 

gras* 
(•PPl 



Coral reafa 



ASIA contlnuad 



Saudi Arabia 



2,510 • 186 41.3 

9S% 



204 #6 There are extensive fringing reefs 

along the Red Sea Coast and 
hundreds of patch reefs off the Gulf 
coast. 



Singapore 



193 



13.0 
93% 



5 #9 Fringing reefs occur around islands 

6 to the south; only small coral 
communities are found off the 
mainland. 



Sri Lanka 



1,340 



516 



174.2 
88% 



88 #6 There are few purely coralline reefs, 

but extensive areas of coral are 
found around the coast, mainly 
close to shore and mostly in the 
east. 



Syria 



193 



10 



F 1.5 
27% 



Taiwan 



536 



#2 Corals are present in all the waters 
around Taiwan except the sandy 
west coast. Main reef development 
is in the south and as fringing reefs 
around some offshore islands. 



Thailand 



3,219 



325 



2,795.2 
91% 



1,964 
2,687 



There are few reefs off the mainland 
coast; they are better developed 
around offshore islands, particulariy 
along the west coast in the 
Andaman Sea. 



Turkey 


7,200 


• 237 


317.4 
87% 


Not present 


#4 


Not present 


Turkmenistan 


1,786 


• 


- 


Not present 




Not present 


United Arab Emirates 


1,448 


59 


92.3 
100% 


30 


- 


Patch reefs and submerged banks 
occur over broad areas of the Gulf 
coast. 


Viet Nam 


3,444 


722 


F 610.0 
70% 


3,700 
(S Viet Nam only) 


#8 


Reefs occur around several offshore 
islands but are sparse on the 
mainland. 


Yemen 


1,906 


34 
550 


84.4 
99% 


Present, no area data 


#8 


There is little information although 
reefs are expected to occur along 
the Arabian Sea coast. 


OCEANIA 


American Samoa 


- 


see 
U.S.A 


0.05 
100% 


Present, no area data 


- 


Fringing reefs, mostly narrow, are 
widespread. 



78 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inihora Marina turtlas Inshora cetacaa 
marina 

fishas 

(»PP-) 



Othar marina 
mammals 



PA PA total 

N" araa (km') 



Oc. Marina Intamational convantions 
Inst 



C. mydas 
E. imbficata 



S. chinensis D. dugon 

N. phocaenoides 



5,100 



2 UNCLOS (S), CMS, Persian 
Gulf, Red Sea 



292 



O. brevirostris D. dugon 

N. phocaenoides 



3 UNCLOS (S) 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L olivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. chinensis D. dugon 

N. phocaenoides 



UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas 
(S), High Seas (S), CMS 



C. caretta 7 



1 Mediterranean 



C. mydas ? S. chinensis D. dugon 

E. imbricata ? N. phocaenoides 



3,100 



C. mydas O. brevirostris 
E. imbricata S. chinensis 

D. coriacea N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



17 5,700 



8 UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 


P. phocoena 


M. monachus 




Mediterranean 






P. caspica 






C. mydas ? 
E. imbricata ? 


S. chinensis 
N. phocaenoides 


D. dugon 


2 


UNCLOS (S), Persian Gulf 



C. mydas O. brevirostris 

E. imbricata S. chinensis 

N. phocaenoides 



D. dugon 



1 UNCLOS 



C mydas 
E. imbricata 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



2 UNCLOS, Red Sea 



61 C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



44 



79 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



OCEANIA continued 



Coait- 


EEZ 


Marin* 


Itow (km) 


(1.000 


Rthariat 




km') 


(1,000 mt) 
% tofi 
fbhTf 


25,760 


6,357 


222.9 
98% 



Mangroves (km') 



Sea- 
grass 
(•PP) 



Coral reefs 



1 1 ,61 7 #25 The 2000km-long Great Barrier Reef 

along the northern half of the east 
coast is the world's largest reef 
system. There are extensive reefs 
east of this in the Coral Sea, and in 
the Torres Strait region. In Western 
Australia reefs occur along 3000km 
of coast; they include fringing and 
veneer reefs, continental shelf atolls, 
platform reefs and an extensive 
barrier/fringing reef tract. 



Cook Islands 



34 see New 

Zealand 



1.1 
100% 



Not present # Several of the islands are coral 

atolls; there are fringing end barrier 
reefs around the volcanic and 

uplifted islands. 



Federated States of 
Micronesia 



237 2,600 



1.4 
55% 



Present, no area data 



There are atolls, almost-atolls and 
high islands with barrier and fringing 
reefs. 



Fiji 



1,129 1.145 



27.0 
87% 



385 #3 Reefs are associated with all the 

island groups; many of the reefs are 
extensive and complex and include 
barrier, fringing and platform reefs. 
The Great Sea Reef is one of the 
world's major barrier reefs. 



French Polynesia 



855 see 

France 



2.6 

99% 



Not present 



The main reef formations are found 
around the atolts (84 of 130 islands) 
or are fringing and barrier reefs 
around the high volcanic islands; 
there are also several oceanic banks. 



Guam 


153 


see USA 


0.6 
76% 


Present, no area data 


2 


There are extensive fringing reefs 
and two barrier reef lagoons. 


Kiribati 


- 


2,640 


F 30.0 
99% 


Present, no area data 


#3 


Alt islands except one (a raised reef) 
are atolls, surrounded by living 
reefs. 


Marshall Islands 


- 


see USA 


0.2 
100% 


Present, no area data 


#1 


The country comprises 29 coral 
atolls and five low coral islands, 
surrounded by living reefs. 



- 318 



0.2 
100% 



0.02 



There is no true reef, although a rich 
coral fauna is found in deeper 
waters around the intertidal platform 
which surrounds the island. 



New Caledonia 



1,249 see 

France 



4.9 
100% 



200 #9 Grande Terre hes an almost 

continuous barrier reef around It, 
over 1600km in length; most of the 
smaller islands are coral atolls or 
have extensive reefs around them. 



New Zealand 


15,134 


6,148 


607.7 
99% 


198 


#1 


There are no true reefs, although 
reef-forming corals form colonies on 
the Kermadec Islands. 


Niue 


66 


see New 
Zealand 


0.1 
100% 


7 


- 


The island is a raised atoll with no 
true reef although corals are 
present. 



80 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inthors 


Marina 


Inahora catacaa 


Othar marina 


PA 


PA total 


Oc. 


marina 


turtlat 






N° 


area (km') 


Inat 


fithai 















Marina intamational convantiona 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L. olh/Bcea 
N. depressus 

D. cohacea 



O. bra vims tris 
S. chinansis 
A. diopvica 



N. clnaraa 
A. tropic all's 
A. gazella 
A. pusillus 
A. forstarf 
H. leptonyx 
M. leonina 



354 



480,000 



UNCLOS IS), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas. CMS, 
CCAMLR, SPREP, IWC 



D. dugon 



157 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



1.6 



UNCLOS (S), SPREP 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



D. dugon 



UNCLOS, SPREP 



407 



C. caretta ? 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



46 



3 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas. 
High Seas, SPREP 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



5 180 



•151 C. mydas 

E. imbricata 



D. dugon 



6 74 



♦352 C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



11 590 



414 C. mydas 

E. imbricata 



UNCLOS. SPREP 



88 



UNCLOS (S), SPREP (S) 



•133 C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



D. dugon 



7 550 



C. hectori 
L obscurus 
A. dioptrica 



P. hooiceri 
A. forsteri 
M. leonina 



76 1 6.000 



UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas (S). High Seas IS). 
CCAMLR. SPREP. IWC 



150 



UNCLOS (S) 



81 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coast- 


EEZ 


Marina 


Ihw (km) 


(1,000 


FIthariat 




km') 


(1,000 mt) 

% tOUl 

nih»ry 



Mangrovai (km') 



Saa- 
grass 
(ipp.) 



Coral raafa 



OCEANIA contlnuad 



Northern Marianas 



see USA 



0.1 
100% 



Present, no area data 



There are barrier reefs and wetl- 
developed fringing reefs around 
Rota, Tinian and Saipan. Reefs are 
absent elsewhere. 



Patau 



see USA 



4.1 
100% 



47 



All islands have extensive reef 
formation. Including a large barrier 
reef around the main high island 
cluster. 



Papua New Guinea 



5,512 



1,728 



F 12.0 
47% 



2,000 #3 There are estimated to be 

170,000km^ of coralline shelf in 
depths of less than 20m and 
40,000km^ of reef and associated 
shallow water in depths of 30m or 
less. Milne Bay Province has the 
greatest concentrations. 



Pitcairn Islands 



see UK 



0.005 
100% 



Oeno and Ducie are coral atolls; 
Henderson is a raised limestone 
island with fringing reefs; there are 
no reefs around Pitcairn. 



Solomon Islands 



5.313 1,526 



69.3 
700% 



642 



Reefs are present but generally fairly 
poorly developed; several of the 
islands are atolls. 



Tokelau 



see New 
Zealand 



0.2 
100% 



The territory comprises three reef- 
bounded coral atolls. 



Tonga 



262 543 



1.9 
99% 



10 



#2 Reefs are widespread. 



Tuvalu 



772 



0.5 
100% 



QAl 



The country comprises five atolls 
and four raised coral islands, all with 
reef development. 



USA: Hawaii and 
central Pacific 
dependencies 



see USA 



Present, no area data 



Fairly well developed fringing reefs 
occur around the high islands; all 
islands north-west of Gardner 
Pinnacles are atolls, coral islands or 
limestone reefs and shoals. The 
Central Pacific Dependencies (Baker, 
Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Palmyra 
and Wake) are all raised reefs or 
atolls with coral development. 



Vanuatu 



2,214 638 3.2 

100% 



30±5 



Reefs are mainly fringing and mostly 
in the western part of the chain; the 
best developed are probably those 
around Anatom. 



Wallis and Futuna 
Islands 



89 



see 
France 



F1.0 



Not at Futuna. 



Uvea is surrounded by a barrier reef, 
and about 22 islets. Futuna is 
surrounded by reef flat. Alofi has a 
small patch of fringing reef. 



Western Samoa 



131 



< 10 #2 Reefs are found around both Upolu 

and Savai'i; there is an estimated 
231km^ of reef and lagoon in total. 



82 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshor* Marine 
marinft turtles 
fUhea 



Inshore cetacea 



Other marine 
mammala 



PA PA total 

N° area (km') 



Oc. Marine international conventions 
Inst 



322 



15 



443 



C myd&s 
£. imbricata 



D. dugon 



15 



SPREP (S) 



665 



C. caretta ? 

C. mydas 
£. imbricata 
I. ofivacea 

D. coriacea 



O. brevirostris 
S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



11 2,200 2 UNCLOS (SI.SPREP 



489 



C. mydas 
E, imbricata 
L oHvacaa 

D. coriacea 



D. dugon 



1 83 1 UNCLOS IS), Liv. Res. High 

Seas, High Seas, SPREP, IWC 



98 



C. mydas 
£. imbricata 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L. oiivacea 



9 37 



Liv. Res. High Seas, High Seas 



150 



C. mydas 
£. imbricata 



UNCLOS (S), SPREP (S) 



•87 



C. mydas 
f. imbricata 



M. schauinsiandi 



20 2,800 4 



367 



C mydas 
E. imbricata 
D. coriacea ? 



D. dugon 



4 1.7 



UNCLOS (SI 



1 0.1 



379 



C, mydas 
E. imbricata 



1 0.2 



UNCLOS (S), SPREP 



83 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



COMt- 


EEZ 


Marina 


llm (km) 


(1.000 


Flthariat 




km') 


(1.000 mt) 
% tofi 
Othmy 



Mangrovaa (km') 



Saa- 
graaa 

(•PP) 



Coral raafs 



NORTH ft CENTRAL AMERICA 



Anguitia 



Antigua and Barbuda 



56 see UK 



153 110 



F 2.3 
100% 



12 

15 



#2 The 1 7km stretch of reef along the 
south-east coast is one of the most 
important in the eastern Caribbean; 
others occur along the north. 

$2 There is an estimated 2Skm' of reef, 
mostly fringing. 



76 see Neth. 



F 0.8 
100% 



The island has a partly emerged 
reef. 



Bahamas 



3,542 - 759 



9.2 
99% 



1.420 
2,332 



There are extensive reef areas. An 
estimated 1S32km' of Great 
Bahama Bank and 324km^ of Little 
Bahama Bank are covered in reef. 
The reefs fringe most of the 
windward northern and eastern 
coasts and the bank edges. 



Barbados 



97 



167 



2.7 
100% 



0.12 



Fringing reefs, generally poorly 
developed, are found around the 
west side. 



Belize 



386 



1.6 
99% 



730 
783 



There is an almost continuous 
barrier reef 257km long, the largest 
in the Western Hemisphere. Three 
atolls also occur. 



Bermuda 



103 see UK 0.4 

100% 



0.17 
0.2 



Total reef area is estimated to be ca 
190km' of which 101km' are 
offshore, 70km' are patch and 
17km' fringing. 



British Virgin Islands 



60 



see UK 



1.4 
100% 



Most of the islands have reefs. 
Anegada has a continuous fringing 
reef. 



Canada 



90,908 



2,939 



1,479.4 
3796 



Not present 



Not present 



Cayman Islands 



160 see UK 



0.8 
100% 



73 
117 



#2 



Fringing reefs largely encircle all 
three islands. 



Costa Rica 



1,290 259 



15.9 
89% 



400 
413 



On the Atlantic coast there is an 
estimated 10km' of living reef in 
three main areas. Coral development 
Is poor along the Pacific coast. 



Cuba 



3,735 363 



143.6 
87% 



5,297 
6,260 



There is an estimated 2150km of 
almost continuous reef along the 
north coast and 1816km in the 
south. 



84 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore Marine 
merine turtlee 

fiehee 

(•pp.) 



Inshore cetacea 



Other marine 
mammala 



PA PA total 

N° area (km'l 



Oc. Marine Intemational conventions 
Inst 



C. mydas 
£. Imbricata 

D. corlacee 



108 



C. mydas 
E, imbricata 

D. coriacaa 



66 



UNCLOS, Caribbean, IWC 



394 f. imbricata 



0.3 



290 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
£. imbricata 



T, manatus 



25 1,300 



1 UNCLOS 



270 E. imbricata 



2.5 



UNCLOS, Caribbean 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



T. manatus 



13 



170 



UNCLOS 



14 



5.7 



C. mydas 

E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



50 



D. iaucas 
M. mortoceros 
P. phocoena 
P. daili 



E. lutris 

E. jubatus 
Z. californianus 
O. rosmarus 
H. grypus 
P. vitulina 
P. bispida 
P. groeniandica 
C. cristata 
E. barbatus 



119 370,000 



1 UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas (S), High Seas (S), 
CCAMLR 



U. maritimus 



C. caretta 



28 85 



C. caretta 
■C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



T. manatus 



18 3,300 



1 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas 
IS), High Seas, IWC 



320 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



T. manatus 



33 15,000 



4 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas 
(SI, High Seas (S), Caribbean 



85 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coast- EEZ Marin* 

llna(km) (1,000 Hahariat 

km') (1,000 mt) 

% tout 

flshty 



Mangrova* (km') 



NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA contlnuad 



Dominica 



148 15 0.6 

100% 



Saa- 
graaa 
(app.l 



Coral raafa 



0.1 *2 There is only limited reef 

development, mainly on the west 
coast and the northern side of 
promontories. 



Dominican Republic 



1,288 269 



16.1 
94% 



90 #2 c 1 66km of coast is bordered by 

235 reef. Patch, fringing and barrier reefs 

occur. 



307 



_ 92 



6.9 
61% 



352 
450 



Greenland 



44,087 see 

Denmark 



113.4 
100% 



Not present 



1 Not present 



Grenada 



27 1.9 

100% 



1.16 



Reefs occur patchily around all 
coasts of Grenada except the west. 
Carriacou has a large bank barrier 
reef complex on its windward side. 



Guadeloupe 



306 



see 
France 



8.4 
99% 



57 
80 



#5 



Reef development is fairiy patchy 
and mostly on the windward side. 



Guatemala 



400 



99 



3.7 

55% 



160 



Haiti 



1,771 



161 



F 4.8 
93% 



1 80 #3 Reefs are very little known, but 

there appear to be seven major 
areas of development. One is a 
barrier reef along the north coast. 



820 



20.8 
99% 



1,170 
1,213 



The Bay Islands have well developed 
reefs. There is no information on 
mainland reefs. 



Jamaica 



1,022 



298 



F 7.2 
69% 



106 
202 



The north coast has almost 
continuous narrow fringing reefs; 
the south has less continuous reefs 
but a greater variety. 



Martinique 



290 



France 



F 3.5 
98% 



19 93 Reefs are absent in the north and 

22 west. There is an extensive bank 

barrier reef system off the south- 
east coast and coral formations 
elsewhere in the south'. 



9,330 2,851 1,257.7 

88% 



5,246 It3 True reefs are found off the coast of 

14,202 Veracruz and around the Yucatan 

Peninsula and Campeche Bank; coral 
communities are found on the 
Pacific coast particulariy around Baja 
California. 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inthora Marine 
marina turtlsa 

flahaa 

(•PP-) 



Inshora catacaa 



Othar marina 
mammals 



PA PA total 

N° araa (km') 



Oc. Marina international conventions 
Inst 



105 



C. mydas 
E. Imbrlcala 

D. corlBcea 



1 5.3 



UNCLOS, Caribbean, IWC 



269 



C. ceretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbr/cata 

D. coriacaa 



T. manatus 



12 



7,200 



2 UNCLOS (S), Uv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas 



C. mydas 
f. imbficalB 
L olivacea 

D. con'acea 



1 UNCLOS (S) 



D. laucBs 

M .monoceros 

P. phocoena 



O. rosmarus 
P. vltulina 
P. hisplda 
P. groanlandlca 
E. barbatus 



2 980,000 



U. mar'nlmus 



433 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 



UNCLOS, Caribbean, IWC 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 



37 



C caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacaa 



T. manatus 



170 1 UNCLOS (SI, High Seas, 

Caribbean 



272 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
C. caretta 



T. manatus 



1 UNCLOS (SI, Uv. Res, High 
Seas, High Seas 



C, caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacaa 



T. manatus 



25 



4,300 



UNCLOS, Caribbean (SI 



340 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



7. manatus 



15 



3 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, CMS, Caribbean 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacaa 



720 



C. ceretta 

C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 
L kempli 

L olh/ecee 

D. corlacee 



P. phocoena 
P. sinus 
P. dalli 



Z. calHornianus 
A. townsendl 
M. engustlrostrls 

T. manatus 



44 40,000 2 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 

High Seas, Caribbean, IWC 



87 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Cout- EEZ Marina 

Una (km) < 1.000 FUharias 

km') (1,000 mt) 

% tofi 

fhhary 



Mangrovaa (km') 



Saa- 

grata 
(app.) 



Coral raafa 



NORTH Si central AMERICA contlnuad 



49 see UK F 0.1 

100% 



2,490 _ 307 



147.1 
99% 



0.04 



Small scattered patches of reef are 
present on all but the windward 
coast. 



Netheriands Antilles 


• 301 


see Neth. 


F 1.1 
700% 


14 


#5 


Bonaire and Curapao are surrounded 
by fringing reefs; no major reefs are 
Icnown in the Windward Group. 


Nicaragua 


910 


_ 160 


5.5 
96% 


600 


# 


Extensive reef formations are found 
on the Caribbean shelf; reefs are 
absent from the Pacific coast. 



1,710 04 The Caribbean coast has c 250km 

2,975 of fringing reef; there is a smaller 

area on the Pacific coast. 



Puerto Rico 



585 see USA 



2.1 
92% 



65 



Corals are widespread but there is 
only localized reef formation, with 
greatest development in the south- 
west and very few on the north 
coast. 



St KItts-NavIs 



F 1.8 
100% 



0.2 
0.79 



Bank barrier reefs with associated 
fringe or bench reefs occur along 
much of the coast of both islands. 



St Lucia 



156 16 



F 0.9 
100% 



1 .57 # Reefs are widespread but are 

1,79 generally small and not well- 

developed. 



St Vincent and the 
Grenadines 



' 91 33 



7.7 
100% 



0.5 #2 The southern, south-eastern and 

western coasts have several small 
fringing reefs. 



Trinidad and Tobago 



362 77 



10.3 
100% 



76 #2 Trinidad has only small patches of 

90 coral, with the greatest development 

along the north coast; Tobago has 
more important but still not 
extensive reefs. 



Turks and Caicos Is 



84 see UK 



F 1.0 
100% 



236 01 The south sides of the Caicos Bank 

are fringed with patchy boulder coral 
heads; barrier and fringing reefs 
occur along the northern sides of the 
Caicos Islands. Patch and fringing 
reefs are found around most of the 
islands in the Turks group. 



88 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshor* Marina 
marina turtles 

fiahaa 

(app.) 



Inshore catacaa 



Other marina 
mammals 



PA PA total 

N° area (km') 



Oc. Marine intemational conventions 
Inst 



C. mydes 
E. imbricata 



1 0.1 



118 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



120 1 



C. cBferta ? 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



7. manatus 



1,200 



1 UNCLOS IS), Caribbean (SI 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. fluvia tills 



T. manatus 



12 14,000 



1 UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas (SI, High Seas (SI, CMS, 
C^aribbean, SE Pacific 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



T. manatus 



16 220 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



1 26 



UNCLOS, IWC 



106 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



27 6.7 1 UNCLOS, Caribbean, IWC 



102 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



21 39 



UNCLOS, Caribbean, IWC 



487 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L. olivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. flu via tills 



50 



2 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, Caribbean 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



13 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coatt- 


EEZ 


Marina 


Nn* (km) 


(1.000 


Rahariaa 




km') 


(1,000 mt) 
% total 
tlslmry 



Mangrovaa (km') 



Saa- 
grata 
(app.) 



Coral raafa 



NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA'contlnuad 



USA 

(excluding Hawaii) 



19,924 



10,654 



5,198.3 
• 35% 



1,900 #11 The reefs south of Florida are the 

2,806 only significant coral assemblages; 

there are over 6,000 patch reefs 

here. 



US Virgin Islands 



see USA 



0.9 

too% 



3.1 



Fringing, barrier and patch reefs are 
found. The most extensive are 
around St Croix; off St Thomas 
most are found in the south-east; 
those around St John are poorly 
developed. 



SOUTH AMERICA 



Argentina 



4,989 



1,164 



630.0 
38% 



Not present 



Not present 



Brazil 



7,491 



3,168 



F 585.6 
73% 



2,500 
10,124 



Some 3,(X)0l(m of coast has reefs 
although not all are true coral reefs. 



Chile 



6,435 



2,288 



5,996.0 
33% 



Not present 



Easter Island has significant coral 
communities although no true reefs. 
There is no coral on the mainland 
coast. 



2,414 



603 



83.7 
77% 



3,580 
5,013 



Extensive coral grovrth around 
offshore islands. Along most of the 
Pacific and Caribbean coastline, 
conditions are suboptimal for coral 
growth. 



Ecuador 



2,237 



1,159 



381.2 
33% 



1,618 
1,821 



Small coral reef formations occur on 
the mainland; there is some reef 
development in the Galdpagos. 



French Guiana 



378 



see 

France 



7.3 
33% 



550 
947 



Guyana 



39.9 
38% 



800 
1,500 



90 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore 


Marina 


Inshore cetacea 


Other marine 


PA 


PA total 


Oc. 


martn* 


turtlaa 






N" 


erea Ikm'l 


Inst 


flahu 














(«PP.) 















Marina kitamatlonal convantiona 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 
L kempii 

D. coriacea 



D. leucas 
M. monoceros 
P. phocoena 
P. da/li 



f. /utris 

E. jubatus 

Z. ca/ffomianus 

C. ursinus 

0. rosmarus 

H. grypus 

P. vitulina 

P. hispfda 

P. fasciata 

E. barbatus 

M. angustirostris 



262 



510,000 



Liv. Res. High Seas. High Seas, 
CCAMLR, Caribbean, SPREP. 
IWC 



U. mar'nimus 



T. manatus 



138 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



58 



C. commersonii 
L austm/is 
L obscurus 
A. dioptrica 
P. spinipinnis 



O. byronia 
M. honina 



32 5,500 



UNCLOS (S), Uv. Res. High 
Seas (S), High Seas (S), CMS, 
CCAMLR, IWC 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L. oiivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. fluviatilis 
P. spinipinnis 



O. byronia 
T. manatus 



82 40,000 



UNCLOS, CCAMLR, IWC 



C. mydas 



C. commersonii 
C. eutropia 
L. australis 
L. obscurus 
A. dioptrica 
P. spinipinnis 



L fe/ina 

O. byronia 
A. philipii 
A. australis 
M. leonina 



32 1 20,000 



UNCLOS (S), CMS, CCAMLR, 
SE Pacific, IWC 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L oiivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. fluviatilis 



T. manatus 



9 6,500 



UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas (S), SE Pacific, 
Caribbean 



419 



306 



C. mydas 
£. imbricata 

D. coriacea 



S. fluviatilis 



Z. califomianus 
A. galapagoensis 



4 88,000 



SE Pacific 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L. oiivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. fluviatilis 



1 1.6 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L oiivacea 
0. coriacea 



S. fluviatilis 



UNCLOS 



91 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coast- 
Una (km) 



SOUTH AMERICA contlnuad 



2,414 



787 



EEZ Marina 

11.000 Flahariaa 

km") (1,000 mt) 

% total 

flsh»ry 



6.914.2 
99% 



Mangrovaa (km') Saa- Coral raafa 

grass 
(spp.) 



48 
64 



386 



101 F 3.9 

96% 



1,150 



Uruguay 


660 


- 119 


143.2 
99% 


■ 


- 


- 


Venezuela 


2,800 


364 


331.5 
94% 


2,500 
6,736 


2 


Comparatively few areas are 
optimal for reef growth, the best 
are around offshore Islands. 



AFRICA 



Algeria 
Angola 



1,183 - 137 

1,600 - 606 



79.7 
96% 



Not present 



#3 Not present 



68.1 
91% 



1,100 



Few corat species, no significant 
reef development. 



Benin 


121 


_ 27 


F 9.0 
22% 




30 


- 


- 


Cameroon 


402 


- 15 


F 56.0 
72% 




3,060 




Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 


Cape Verde 


965 


789 


8.6 
100% 




? 


- 


Coral communities (up to six 
species) widespread, with minor reef 
development. 


Comoros 


340 


249 


6.5 
100% 


Present. 


no area data 


#1 


Fringing reefs occur around the 
three islands. 


Congo 


169 


_ 25 


18.4 
40% 




20 


- 


- 


CAte d'lvoire 


515 


105 


61.4 
72% 




20 




Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 


Djibouti 


314 


6 


F 0.4 
100% 


Present, 


no area data 


#2 


Generally shallow reefs occur 
around the Golfe de Tadjoura and 
outlying isands. 



Egypt 



2,450 



174 



82.1 
28% 



Present, no area data 



#9 Fringing reefs occur from Ras 

Shukheir to Quseir; further south the 
area has been little studied. 
Significant reefs occur along the 
southern part of the Sinai 
Penninsula, extending within the 
Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez 
although reefs here are less well 
developed than in the Gulf of Aqaba 



92 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore Marina 
marina turtlaa 

fiahat 

(»PP-I 



Inahora catacaa 



Othar marina 
mammala 



PA PA total Oc. Marina intamational conventions 

N° araa (km'l Inat 



L. olivacea 
D. corlacea 



L obscurus 
S. fluvlatilis 
P. spinlpinnis 



L felirta 
O. byronia 
T. manatus 



7,100 



CCAMLR, SE Pacific, IWC 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 
L olivacea 

D, corlacea 



S, fluvlatilis 



1,200 



1 UNCLOS (5) 



- - 


A. dioptrica 
S. fluvlatilis 


0. byronia 
A. eustralis 


4 


200 


- 


UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas 
(S), High Seas (SI, CMS, 
CCAMLR 


C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. Imbricate 


S. fluvlatilis 


T. manatus 


16 


11,000 


2 


Liv. Res. High Seas, High Seas, 
Caribbean, IWC 




■ ■ 


- 


M. monachus 


8 


920 


1 


UNCLOS (SI, Mediterranean 



C, carette 

C. mydas 
E. Imbricata 
L. olivacee 

D. corlacea 



C. heavlsldil 
S. teuszil 



T. senegalensis 



4 29,000 



UNCLOS 



- 


- 


S. teuzil 


T. senegalensis 


1 


100 


- UNCLOS (SI, CMS, W & Cent. 
Africa (SI 


- 


C. mydas 
E. imbricate 
L. oln/ecee 


S. teuzil 


T. senegalensis 


2 


4,600 


UNCLOS, CMS, W & Cent. 
Africa 


108 


C. caretta 
C. mydes 
E. Imbrlcete 


P. phocoena 




2 


3.7 


- UNCLOS 


339 


C. mydas 
f. imbricata 


- 


D. dugon 


- 


■ 


- UNCLOS 




C. carette 
C. mydes 
L olivacee 


S. teuszil 


T. senegelensis 


1 


1,400 


- UNCLOS (SI, W & Cent. Africa 
(SI 


- 


C. mydes 
E, Imbricata 


S. teuszil 


T. senegalensis 


3 


330 


UNCLOS, CMS (SI, W & Cent. 
Africa 


- 


C. mydas 
E. imbricate 


S. chinensis 


D. dugon 


2 


7 


- UNCLOS 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
£. imbricata 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



15 8,400 5 UNCLOS, CMS, Mediterranean, 

Red Sea 



93 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Coait- 


EEZ 


Marina 


lin* (km) 


(1.000 


Rahariat 




km') 


(1,000 mt) 
% total 
fishery 



Mangrovaa (km') Saa- Coral raafa 

graaa 
(app.l 



AFRICA contlnuad 



Equatorial Guinea 



296 



3.2 
90% 



200 



Coral communities (up to seven 
species) present in SE Bioko and 
mainland, some minor reef 
development. 



Eritrea 



1,094 



. 76 



F 1.8 
• 39% 



Present, no area data 



Shallow fringing reefs, probably 
occur along the mainland coast. 
Many reefs within the Dahlak 
Archipelago, the outer islands being 
better developed. 



885 



F 20.0 
91% 



2,500 



Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 



Gambia 



80 



20 



21.2 
89% 



Ghana 



218 



307.9 
84% 



20 



Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 



Guinea 



346 



71 



F 34.0 
91% 



2,230 



Guinea-Bissau 



274 



151 



F 4.8 
96% 



2,366 



Kenya 



536 



118 



7.4 
4% 



530 
616 



Fringing and patch reefs occur 0.5- 
2km offshore along most of coast. 



Liberia 



579 



230 



5.6 
58% 



200 



Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 



Libya 
Madagascar 



1,770 
4,828 



338 



7.8 
100% 



Not present 



#1 Not present 



1,292 



73.3 
73% 



3,256 



Reef types are varied and extensive. 
Concentrated at Toliara in the 
southwest, at Nosy 86 in the 
northwest. There is a small amount 
of reef development in the 
northeast, although these are the 
least known. 



Mauritania 



754 



154 



F 84.0 
93% 



Very limited area 



Mauritius 



1,181 



18.8 
99% 



0.07 il'6 Mauritius has ca 1 50km (300km'l 

of almost continuous fringing reef; 
Agalega has ca lOOkm^ fringing 
reef; Rodrigues has a 2- 10km wide 
reef platform around 90km of coast: 
ca 190km' of reef occur around the 
Cargados Carajos Shoals. 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore Marina 
mariiw turtlu 

flthu 

(•PP-) 



Inshore cetacea 



Other marina 
mammals 



PA PA toul 

N° area (km'l 



Oc. Marina Intemational conventions 
Inst 



C. mydas 
E. ImbricBta 



S. teus2il 



T. senegalensis 



1,500 



UNCLOS (S) 



C. mydas 
f. imbricate 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
EJmbricata 



S. teuszii 



T. senegalensis 



6,600 



UNCLOS (SI, W & Cent. Africa 



C. mydas 
£. Imbricate 



S. teuszii 



T. senegalensis 
T. senegelensis 



230 



UNCLOS, W & Cent. Africa 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
B. Imbricate 
L. olhiacee 

D. coriacee 



S. teuszii 



UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas 
(S), High Seas (SI, CMS, W & 
Cent. Africa 



C. mydes 
E. Imbricata 



5. teuszii 



T. senegalensis 
T. se-wgelensis 



UNCLOS, CMS, W & Cent. 
Africa 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L olivacea 

D. coriacee 



S. teuszii 



UNCLOS 



C. mydes 
E. imbricata 
L. olivacee 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



13 3,500 



1 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, E. Africa, IWC 



C mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olivacee 
D. corlacea 



S. teuszii 



T. senegelensis 



UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas (S), High Seas (SI, W & 
Cent. Africa (SI 



C. cerette 



M. monachus 



970 



UNCLOS (SI, Mediterranean 



C. cerette 
C. mydes 
E. imbricete 
L olivacea 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



23 2 UNCLOS (SI, Liv. Res. High 

Seas, High Seas, CMS (S), E. 
Africa (SI 



C. carettte 

C. mydes 
E. imbriceta 
L. olivacea 

D. coriacee ? 



S. teuszii 
P. phocoena 



M. monachus 
T. senegalensis 



5 1 5,000 



UNCLOS (SI, W & Cent. Africa 

(SI 



313 



D. dugon 



90 



1 UN(:L0S (SI, Liv. Res. High 
Seas (SI, High Seas 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



oast- 


EEZ 


Marin* 


(km) 


(1.000 


FUhcria* 




km') 


(1,000 mt) 
% tout 
Htlitry 



Mangrovai (km") Saa- Coral raafa 

graas 
(•PP-I 



AFRICA eontlnuad 



Mayotte 



170 



saa 

France 



Present, no area data 



t2 There is a substantial barrier reef. 



Morocco 



1,835 



278 



591.5 
99% 



Not present 



Not present 



Mozambique 



2,470 



562 F 33.5 

93% 



850 *9 Fringing reefs are common along the 

northern coast; south of Mocambo 
Bay reefs are confined to offshore 
islands. 



1,489 500 



204.5 
99% 



Nigeria 



853 



211 



175.7 
66% 



9,700 
33,280 



Reunion (& Oep.) 



207 see 

France 



2.3 Present at Europe. #1 There is 10-12 km of discontinuous 

99% fringing reef along the south-west 

coast; all five dependencies are 
coral atolls. 



Saint Helena Id Dep.l 



50 sea UK 0.6 

78 1CX)% 



S§o Tom6 and Prrncipe 



215 



128 F 3.5 

100% 



Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 



Senegal 



531 



206 



302.1 
95% 



1,690 



Few coral species, no significant 
reef development. 



Seychelles 



South Africa 



1,349 



5.9 
100% 



Present, no area data 



2,881 



1,017 



496.6 

5596 



The reefs are emong the most 
extensive in the world, spread over 
a very wide area. The granitic 
islands have many scattered fringing 
end patch reefs. 



Sierra Leone 


402 


- 156 


F 35.0 
70% 


1,000 
1,710 


- 


Few Corel species, no significant 
reef development. 


Somelia 


3,025 


- 782 


F 15.8 
98% 


100 


#1 


There is an interrupted barrier reef 
along the south coast from Cadale 
to the Kenyan border. 



#3 There are no true reefs, but coral 
communities occur off the 
Maputaland coast in the north-east. 



Sudan 



853 



- 92 



1.5 
5% 



Present, no area deta 



#7 Much of the 750km coastline has 
fringing reefs paralleled by barrier 
reefs 1-14km wide. 



96 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore 


Marin* 


Inthora eetaoa 


Othar marina 


PA 


PA total 


Oc. 


Marina 


mariiM 


tuitl** 






N» 


araa (km') 


Inat 




fi*ha« 
















(IPP) 

















Marine international conventions 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

D. coriacaa 



P. phocoena 



M. monaehus 



10 970 



UNCLOS {S), Mediterranean, 
CMS 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



1 25,000 



UNCLOS (S) 



C. caretta 


C. heavisidil 


A. pusillus 


4 


74,000 


- UNCLOS 


- - 


S. teuszli 


T. senegalensis 


- 


- 


- UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, High Seas, CMS, W 
& Cent. Africa 



C. mydas 



129 C. mydas 



• A. tropicaiis 

• M. leonirta 



4 65 



77 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



UNCLOS 



C. caretta 

C. mydas 

E. imbricata 
L otivacea 

D. coriacea 



S. teuszii T. senegalensis 6 840 1 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 

P. phocoena High Seas, CMS. W & Cent. 

Africa, IWC 



379 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



8 380 



1 UNCLOS, E. Africa, IWC 



C. caretta 
C. mydas 
E. imbricata 


S. teuszii 


T. senegaiensis 


■ 


- 


- UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas 


C. mydas 
f. imbricata 


S. chinensis 


D. dugon 


2 


3,300 


- UNCLOS, CMS, Red Sea, E. 
Africa 



C. caretta C. heavisidii A. tropicaiis 

D. coriacea L. obscurus A. gazelle 

S. chinensis A. pusillus 

N. phocaenoides M. leonine 



26 4,800 



1 UNCLOS (S), Liv. Res. High 
Seas, High Seas, CMS, 
CCAMLR, IWC 



D. dugon 
D. dugon 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 



S. chinensis 



260 



3 UNCLOS, Red Sea 



97 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 6. Marine resources 



AFRICA contlnuad 



Cout- 


EEZ 


Marine 


w(km) 


(1.000 


FIsheriat 




km') 


(1.000 mt) 
% tofi 
ash»ry 


1,424 


223 


55. 3 
)4% 



Mangrovaa (km') Saa- Coral raafi 

grass 
(spp.) 



total area: 1,336 #8 Reefs, mainly fringing and patch. 

mainland: 1,155 occur along c 600km (80%) of the 

Unguja: 61 coast. Many islands, including 

Pemba; 120 Zanzibar and Pemba are surrounded 

by fringing reefs. 



Togo 


56 


2 


12.1 
97% 


Present, 


no area data 


- 


- 


Tunisia 


1,143 


_ 86 


90.7 
100% 




Not present 


#3 


Not present 


Western Sahara 


- 


131 







- 


- 




Zaire 


37 


1 


F 2.0 
f% 




630 


- 





ANTARCTICA 



Antarctica 



Not present 



Not present 



UK subantarctic islands 



1,669 see UK 



0.5 



Not present 



Not present 



French subantarctic 
islands 



see 
France 



F 0.5 
100% 



Not present 



Not present 



Norwegian subantarctic 

islands 



Norway 



Not present 



Not present 



98 



Table 6. Marine resources 



Inshore 


Marine 


Inshore cetacea 


Other marine 


PA 


PA totel 


marina 


turtle! 






N" 


area Ikm') 


flshei 












(«PP.) 













Oc. Marine international conventions 
Inst 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 
L olh/acea 

D. coriacea 



S. chinensis 



D. dugon 



300 



4 UNCLOS 



C. mydas 
E. imbricata 

D. coriacea 


S. teuszii 


T. senegalensis 


- 




- UNCLOS, W & Cent. Africa 


C. caretta 


P. phocoena 




3 


170 


2 UNCLOS, Liv. Res. High Seas, 
High Seas, CMS(S), 
Mediterranean 


E. imbricata 


■ 


M. monachus 


- 


- 


- 


C. mydas 
L. olivacea 

D. coriacea 


S. teuszii 


T. senegalensis 


1 


1,000 


- UNCLOS, CMS 



L weddelUi 
O. rossii 

L carc/nophagus 
H. top tony X 



38 



350 



33 



C. commerson/i 
L australis 
L obscurus 
A. dioptrica 



O. byronia 
A. aus trails 
A. gazella 
L weddel/if 
H. lap tony X 
M. leonina 



105 



C. commersonif 
L obscurus 
A. dioptrica 



A. tropica/is 
A. gaze/la 
H. leptonyx 
M. leonina 



A. gazella 
H. leptonyx 
M. leonina 



59 



99 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 7. Forests in the tropics 

Forests in the tropics, particularly moist forests or rainforests, are widely held to be the most 
biologically diverse habitats on earth. Correspondingly, loss of these habitats through deforestation or 
degradation is considered one of the most important conservation problems today. 

Needless to say, the true picture is far more complicated than this. Tropical forests vary enormously 
in their composition, complexity and diversity. Classifying, categorising and measuring them is an 
extremely difficult task. There is not even a single, universally accepted definition of what constitutes 
a forest, let alone a 'swamp forest' or 'cloud forest' or 'monsoon forest' or any of the many other 
types and classes of forests that have been named. These problems are further compounded when 
attempts are made to measure changes to forests. It is also apparent that the biological diversity of 
dry forests has often been under-estimated. 

What Is a forest? 

FAO, who have carried out the most comprehensive analysis of tropical forests (FAO/UNEP 1981, 
FAO, 1988, 1993), have defined natural and semi-natural forests as 'ecological systems with a 
minimum of 10% crown cover of trees and/or bamboo, generally associated with wild flora and fauna 
and natural soil conditions and not subject to agricultural practices'. This is an extremely wide 
definition, and includes many open vegetation formations which would not normally be regarded as 
forests. 

A more rigorous definition which accords much more closely with wider perceptions of what 
constitutes a forest is that of 'closed-canopy forest', ie. predominantly woody formations with a 
minimum crown-cover of 40%. However, this definition can only be applied with confidence to 
formations mainly composed of broad-leaved trees. This is because the growth form of many 
coniferous species means that a significant number of coniferous formations, which would be widely 
regarded as forests, have crown cover of less than 40%. 

FAO have elaborated on their definition of closed broad-leaved forests as follows: "those which cover 
with their various storeys and undergrowth a high proportion of the ground and do not have a 
continuous dense grass layer allowing grazing and spreading of fires. They are often but not always 
multi-storeyed. They may be evergreen, semi-deciduous, wet, moist or dry". 

Classifying forests 

It is generally recognized that some form of forest classification is necessary for purposes of 
monitoring change and assessing the relative importance of different forest areas, particularly in terms 
of how species-rich they are. 

Climate is the chief factor which determines the type of forest growing in any given area, but soil type 
(determined largely by underlying geology) and degree of disturbance are also important. The most 
important components of climate are rainfall and temperature, although neither of these is 
straightforward to describe. In particular, degree of seasonality is often as important as annual totals 
(for rainfall) or averages (for temperature); daily temperature range can be as significant as daily 
average temperature. 

Markedly seasonal climates generally have predominantly deciduous or semi-deciduous broadleaved 
formations. However, most forests in the tropics, including those generally classified as evergreen, 
have a notable number of tree species which lose their leaves seasonally or periodically; similarly most 
deciduous forests will have a number of evergreen species. Hence determining at what point a forest 
changes from evergreen to semi-deciduous and from semi-deciduous to deciduous will always be to 
some extent an arbitrary decision. 



100 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Monitoring change 



Measuring and assessing changes to forests self-evidently depends on continued monitoring and on 
consistent application of categories and definitions throughout the course of the study. This Is difficult 
to achieve over a wide area. Measuring degradation and change in forest quality are particularly 
difficult, as no satisfactory and v«/idely applicable measures have yet been developed. 

Deforestation Is the most drastic form of forest degradation. It Is defined by FAO as "change of land- 
use or depletion of crown cover to less than 10%". Some very marked degradation (eg. a decrease 
of crown cover from 80% to 15%) would not be classified as deforestation according to this 
definition. 

Forest degradation which Is not deforestation will normally involve some or all of: 

• Change in species composition (loss or gain of species and changes In the relative abundance 
of those present); 

• Changes in canopy cover; 

• Changes in age-structure of particular species. 

NOTES TO TABLE 7 

The following table summarises information on forests in most of the world's tropical countries. 

Key: 

Indicates lack of data. 

The emphasis is on moist forests, and only those countries with some closed-canopy moist broadleaved forest have been 
included. For these countries, however, the figures and discussion generally include other forest formations. Figures for both 
total forest and woodland area (ie. over 1 0% canopy cover. Column 31 and closed forest (generally canopy cover over 40%, 
Column 5) are included. As discussed above, the latter is much closer to what is generally understood as forest, but comparative 
figures for deforestation are only available for the former. 

Most information is derived from two sources: the FAO Tropical Forest Assessment and follow-ups (FAO, 1981, 1989, 1993) 
and the three-volume The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests (Collins etal., 1991; Sayer ef a/., 1992; Harcourt and Sayer, 
in press). Fuller discussion of the issues involved will be found in these sources and in Global Biodiversity (WCMC, 1992). 
Countries covered are generally those included in The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests along with a number of Pacific 
island states and dependencies omitted from volume 1 of the Atlas but identified in Dahl (1980) as having either lowland or 
montane rainforest. Statistics for forest cover and deforestation are missing for several of these. 

Column 2, Country size: Size of country is land area as defined by FAO. 

Column 3, Forest and woodland: Forest and woodland area is also from FAO and includes all areas with a canopy cover of 
greater than 10%. Source is generally Table 4a in FAO (1993), figures marked with ' are from FAO (1988). All figures are 
rounded as appropriate. The figure for China, marked with *, is for the whole country including temperate and sub-tropical areas. 

Column 4, Annual deforest.: Annual deforestation rates are taken from Table 4a in FAO (1 993) and indicate change to canopy 
cover of less than 10% or change in land use. Percentage change refers to the area given in column 3 (ie. all forest and 
woodland). Figures are for average deforestation over the period 1981-1990. For some of the Caribbean islands, deforestation 
rates are very low in absolute terms but still significant as a percentage of forest and woodland cover. For these area deforested 
is given as 'e', indicating a very small, non-zero number. In a few cases FAO consider that forest cover is increasing. For these 
deforestation is given as negative. All figures are rounded as appropriate. 

Column 5, Forest cover: Measures of forest area are taken from FAO and, where available, from the WCMC Biodiversity Map 
Library. The first figure is generally from Table 5a in FAO (1 993) and refers to the situation in 1 990. Figures marked with ' are 
taken from FAO (1 988) and refer to 1 980. The second figure (in italics) is that derived from the WCMC Biodiversity Map Library 
(BML) as quoted in 7776 Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests. The map in Figure 6 shows the distribution of forests in the 
tropics according to this source, as compiled in the BML. For Africa, Asia and Oceania, figures from the BML generally refer to 
closed broad-leaved forest. For South and Central America and the Caribbean, these figures also include pine formations and 
dry forests, which comprise a significant proportion of forest cover in many Neotropical countries. This discrepancy should be 
borne in mind, however, when comparing figures for the two regions. Full discussion of the sources of data for the figures from 
the BML is provided in the relevant volume of the forest atlas. It should be noted that the quality of data and date of the original 
source are both very variable, although almost all source maps are from the period 1980-1990. Figures marked with ^ include 
at least 30% mangroves. Mangroves are discussed in more detail in 



101 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 6 and are not discussed further in this table. The wide divergence between some of the figures from FAO and their 
equivalents from the BML is generally a result of different forest classification systems being used in the two cases and clearly 
illustrates the difficulty in establishing a reliable and consistent global data set for forest cover. 

Column 6, Fl: Fl = Fragmentation Index is the Perimeter Area Index (PAI) used by FAO, determined by: 

PAI = 0.282095 • P. 

VA'VN 

Where A = total area of all patches 
N = number of patches 
P, = total length of perimeter of all patches 

Because this index is dependent (in a non-linear way) on the scale of the map from which it Is derived, the latter Is given in each 
case. From the data given, it is legitimate to compare fragmentation indices for countries with the same original map scale but 
not those with different map scales (Column 7). 

Column 7, Map scale: Indicates the scale of the map from which data for the fragmentation index were derived. The figure is 
In millions (ie. 0.5 represents a scale of 1:500,000). Entries marked 1* (some African countries) are 1 km resolution 
NOAA/AVHRR-LAC satellite data (taken as equivalent to 1:1,000,000 map scale) generalized to 2 x 2 km sq. 

Column 8, Dascription of forests: Data are generally summarized from the relevant account in The Conservation A ties of Tropical 
Forests. The descriptions therefore generally apply to the area delimited in column 5, that is closed broadleaved forest and, for 
the Americas, dry and coniferous forest. For Pacific countries not included in volume 1 of the atlas, the description is mainly 
taken from Dahl (1980). 

Column 9, Biodiversity: Information is from multiple sources. This section should be taken as only a very superficial indicator 
of the relative importance for biodiversity of the forests in the countries concerned. In particular, little attempt has been made 
to differentiate between different types of diversity (eg. a country may be considered to have high diversity because its forests 
are intrinsically rich in species, or because it covers a wide geographic area and has a wide range of different forests, each of 
which has different species in it but with no individual forest type necessarily intrinsically very rich). 

Column 10. Factors affecting forests: An attempt has been made here to indicate what percentage of original forest cover has 
been cleared or heavily degraded. Defining and estimating 'original forest cover' is extremely difficult, as discussed in more detail 
in Global Biodiversity and in the forest atlases. For this reason figures quoted here should be treated extremely circumspectly. 
A brief overview of factors currently affecting the forests is also presented. 

Column 1 1 , Area prot.: This is an estimate of the absolute area of forest within protected areas of lUCN management categories 
l-V (see Table 8) as calculated by overlaying digitised maps of protected areas with those of forest cover and measuring the 
degree of overlap (analysis by WCMC Biodiversity Map Library [BML]). 

Column 12, % prot: Gives the area recorded in Column 1 1 as a percentage of total forest measured in the BML (ie. the second 
figure in Column 5). The BML does not yet include all protected areas in lUCN categories l-V. 

Column 13, % cover In BML: Indicates what percentage of a given country's total protected area is included in the BML and 
therefore gives an indication of the reliability of the figures in columns 1 and 1 1 . Countries which have no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V are so indicated. For a few countries figures have been derived from a source other than the BML. These 
are indicated in italics. lUCN protected area categories are described in the notes to Table 8. 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



ASIA 



Country Foratt Annual Forait 

Sba and deforut. covar 

wood- 
land 

(thouaand aquara kilomatraa) 



Map Daacriptlon of foraata 
Scala 



Bangladesh 



130 7.7 0.4 6^ 

3.9% 9.7 



0.5 There are patches of rainforest in the east, in the 
Chittagong and Sylhet regions, and vestiges of 
monsoon forest in the north. 



if Brunei 



5.3 



4.6 0.02 4.6 

0.4% 4.7 



1.8 



The country is largely covered with a mosaic of 
lowland rainforest and inland swamp forest. There 
is a small amount of montane forest in the south- 
east. 



Cambodia 



177 122 1.3 62 

1.0% 113 



There are lowland and montane monsoon and rain 
forests and inland swamp forests. The main 
rainforest areas are in the Cardamom and Elephant 
Ranges in the west. 



i/ China 



9,326 1,555* 



26 



Most moist forest is lowland monsoon in Hainan 
and southern Guangxi; patches of lowland 
rainforest occur in southern parts of Hainan, 
Guangxi and Yunnan and montane forest in 
Yunnan. 



2,973 



517 



3.4 
0.6% 



287 
228 



1.8 



Tropical moist forest is found in the Andaman and 
Nicobar islands, the Western Ghats and the greater 
Assam region with small remnants in Orissa. More 
than half is semi-evergreen. 



1,812 1,095 12 864 1.3 2.5 Most forests are evergreen rainforests, except for 

1.0% 1,179 those of eastern Java, Madura, Bali, the Lesser 

Sundas, southern Sulawesi and southern Irian Jaya 
which are monsoon forests. There are also 
extensive swamp forests and montane forest 
particularly in Sumatra and Irian Jaya. 



Laos 



231 132 



1.3 
0.9% 



104 
126 



1.5 



There are evergreen rainforests and monsoon 
forests, both lowland and montane. The most 
extensive mature moist forests are now mainly in 
southern and central parts. 



Malaysia 



329 178 



4.0 
2.0% 



176 
200 



1.1 



In Peninsular Malaysia most forest is lowland 
rainforest; there is also montane forest, swamp 
forest and some semi-deciduous forest in the 
extreme north-west. Sabah and Sarawak also have 
extensive lowland rainforest: Sarawak has large 
areas of swamp forest and montane fore.'^t, the 
tatter principally in the east. 



Myanmar 



658 289 4.0 287 

1.3% 312 



Lowland and montane rainforest, mostly semi- 
evergreen, occurs on west-facing mountain slopes 
in the east, west and north. More centrally there 
are monsoon forest, many degraded. 



Philippines 



298 



78 



3.2 

3.3% 



76 



1.2 



The eastern part of the country has lowland and 
montane rainforest, the western side lowland and 
montane monsoon forests. The most extensive 
remaining areas are in Luzon and Mindanao. 



Singapore 



0.6 



0.02 



A 70ha area of lowland rainforest remains on Bukit 
Timah, along with another 50ha of fragments in 
the central catchment area. Remaining forest is 
secondary and abandoned plantation. 



104 



i 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



./ 



Blodlvaraity 



Factor* affacting foraau 



Araa 
prot. 



% % covar 

prot. In BML 



(thousand hactarat) 



Diversity was formerlv high but Is now 
reduced. Endemism Is low. 



Over 95% of original forest cover has been cleared. 
Shifting agriculture Is the main cause of forest loss. 



31 3% 32% 



Diversity Is vary high; regional endemism Is 
fairly high, with many Bornean endemics. 
National endemism is low. 



The forests are relatively little disturbed. There Is some 
local demand for timber. 



49 10% 40% 



The forests are little studied. Diversity can be 
expected to be high, as can regional endemism. 
National endemism is probably low as species 
are shared with other countries, particularly 
Vietnam. 



1 986 estimates of three-quarters of the original forest 
cover cleared and only 10% of primary forest 
remaining. The central plain is mostly deforested. 
Shifting cultivation is the major cause of forest loss. 



Diversity in the forests is high; endemism is 
moderate. 



Over 90% of original forest is believed to have been 
lost. Clearance for shifting and settled agriculture are 
the main causes of forest loss, although unsustainable 
logging Is also important. 



Diversity is high; endemism is high in the 
Western Ghats, particularly among amphibians 
and reptiles. Many regional endemics shared 
between W Ghats and Sri Lanka. Regional 
endemism In NE India is high amongst some 
groups. 



Between 50% and 75% of forests have been lost. 
Shifting agriculture, logging, over-grazing and 
hydroelectric projects are the major causes of forest 

loss. 



820 4% 39% 



Diversity and endemism are both extremely 
high. The country contains some of the most 
diverse forests in the world and spans two 
major biogeographic realms; many of the 
Islands have large numbers of endemic species. 



An estimated 30% of original forest has been lost. 
Shifting agriculture Is the major cause of forest loss. 
Uncontrolled logging damages the forest structure and 
In some areas makes them vulnerable to fire. 
Transmigration from Java and Bali has had a major 
effect in some areas. 



10,657 



9% 



87% 



The forests are incompletely known, but are 
believed to have high diversity and moderate 
endemism with fairly high regional endemism. 



Between 45% and 55% of moist forest has been 
cleared or degraded. Shifting cultivation is the major 
cause of forest loss although uncontrolled logging has 
recently become significant. 



Diversity is very high with moderate endemism; 
west Malaysia has a significant number of 
Bornean endemics, shared with Kalimantan 
(Indonesia) and Brunei. 



In peninsular Malaysia nearly 50% of the forest has 
been cleared; the major cause of forest loss is clearance 
for large-scale agriculture. In Sabah over half the forest 
and in Sarawak around 30% has been cleared; in the 
latter shifting cultivation is the major problem while in 
Sabah both settled and shifting agriculture following 
logging are important. 



1,118 



6% 



79% 



Diversity is very high; national endemism Is 
generally low, although there is significant 
regional endemism, particularly In the northern 
forests. 



Around half the forest has been cleered; current 
deforestation rates are extremely high, largely owing to 
shifting cultivation and unsustainable logging. 



134 



87% 



Diversity Is very high and endemism Is 
extremely high. 



65-70% of original forest cover has been cleared; 
shifting agriculture and unsustainable logging practices 
are the major causes of forest loss. 



56 



1% 



38% 



Diversity Is impoverished but otherwise typical 
of lowland Malesian dipterocarp rainforest. 
Endemism Is very low. 



Over 95% of forest cover has been cleared. Less than 
0.2% of primary forest remains. Encroachment for 
building and Increased recreational use are the main 
threats. 



100% 



105 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Country Forut Annual Forait 

Sb* and dsfors«t. cov«r 

wood- 
land 

(thousand tquara kilomatras) 



Map Dascription of foraata 
Scala 



ASIA condnuad 



y^ Sri Lanka 



65 



17 



0.3 
1.4% 



14 
12 



0.5 Rainforests, both lowland and montane, are 

restricted to the south-west; there are extensive 
degraded monsoon forests in the north and east. 



Taiwan 



36 



1.7 



Remnants of lowland rainforest remain in the far 
south and on Orchid Island. 



511 127 5.2 

3.3% 



82 
107 



1.2 



Remaining forests, both rainforest and monsoon, 
are found mainly in the north and west, with some 
in the south and south-east. They are both lowland 
and montane. 



Vietnam 



325 83 



1.4 
1.5% 



49 
57 



1.0 



Remaining scattered rainforests and monsoon 
forests, both lowland and montane, are 
concentrated in the central two-thirds of the 
country. 



OCEANIA 



American Samoa 0.2 



There is lowland and montane rainforest, mostly 
secondary, and cloud forest. 



Australia 



7,618 



1,2 0.5 Small patches of rainforest are found in the north- 

// east, mainly along the Queensland coast; most is 

lowland. 



There is some montane rainforest in central 
Rarotonga. 



Fed. States 
Micronesia 



There is lowland rainforest on volcanic and 
limestone rock and some montane rainforest on 
Truk, Ponape and Kosrae. 



Rji 



18 



0.02 
0.3% 



8.1' 
7.0 



Lowland rainforest is found in the southern and 
eastern parts of the larger islands. There is a small 
amount of montane forest. 



French Polynesia 3.9 1.2' 



Lowland rainforest is generally much disturbed. 
Montane rainforest is present in the interiors of 
many of the high islands. 



Guam 



0.4 



There is some lowland rainforest and possibly a 
limited area of cloud forest on Mt Lamlam. 



New Caledonia 



19 



4.8' 



There is lowland rainforest on basic and limestone 
substrate, submontane rainforest, mid-altitude dry 
coniferous forest and some cloud forest and 
swamp forest. 



Niue 



0.3 



There is a small area of lowland rainforest on 
limestone. 



Northern 
Mariana Is 



0.5 



There is lowland rainforest, some riverine forest 
and probably cloud-forest. 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Bkxiivertitv 



Factora affecting foresta 



Area 
prot. 



% 
prot. 



% cover 
InBML 



(titousand hectares) 



Diversity and endemism are moderatelv high. 



Between 35% and 55% of forest has been cleared. 
Major threats are fuelwood gathering; permanent 
agriculture; shifting cultivation; tree plantations; fire; 
gemstone mining; urbanisation and logging. 



336 



96% 



Diversity is moderate; endemism is lovi/. 



Remaining vestiges of rainforest are reportedly 
protected. 



Diversity is very high; endemism is moderate. 



55-65% of forest has been cleared; clearance for 
permanent and shifting agriculture and tree plantations, 
often following logging, are the major threats. 



2,591 



24% 



Diversity is very high; regional endemism is 
high, national endemism is moderately high. 



Around 85-90% forest cover has been lost, and only 
1% remains largely untouched. War from 1945-75 and 
intensive reconstruction since the are the major causes 
of toss. 



291 



5% 



62% 



Diversity is fairly low; there is notable regional 
endemism, with most species also present on 
Western Samoa. 



Clearance of forests for shifting cultivation is a major 
factor. The forests are also susceptible to hurricane 
damage. 



Diversity is lower than in the main S.E Asian 
forest blocks; regional endemism is very high, 
with many species shared with New Guinea, 
but there is also significant national endemism. 



Probably less than 20% has been cleared, mostly for 
commercial agriculture and cattle ranching. There is 
little clearing or disturbance at present. 



234 



Diversity is low. There is some endemism. 



Lowland forest has mostly been cleared for cultivation. 
Inland forest is relatively undisturbed although is 
threatened by introduced species 



0% 



Diversity is fairly low, although higher than 
most Pacific islands, with a significant number 
of national and regional endemics (many 
species are shared with Palauniue). 



Lowland forest has mostly been cleared for cultivation 
or is heavily disturbed. Montane forest is less seriously 
affected. 



There are no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V. 



Diversity is low; endemism is moderate to 

high. 



It is estimated that over half the forest area has been 
lost. Conversion of land to agriculture, excessive 
logging and planting with mahogany and other exotics 
are threats. 



Diversity is low; endemism is moderate to 
high. 



Deforestation through urbanisation and clearance for 
agriculture and invasion by introduced species are the 
major threats. 



Diversity is fairly low; regional endemism is 
fairly high, with many species shared with the 
Northern Mariana Islands. 



Logging and clearance for development have destroyed 
most rainforest; previously slash-and-burn was the 
major factor affecting forests. Introduced species are a 
major threat. 



Diversity is moderately high, endemism is 
extremely high. New Caledonia has one of the 
world's most distinctive floras with significant 
numbers of endemic genera and families as 
well as species. 



Only around 10% of the country is now covered in 
dense forest. Virtually all coastal forest has been 
destroyed. Excessive logging and strip-mining are 
major threats. 



Diversity and endemism are both low. 



Most forest has been degraded, apart from that in the 
tapu {traditionally protected) region. 



Diversity is fairly low; regional endemism is 
fairly high, with many species shared with 
Guam. 



Tourist development on Saipan is a major factor. 



107 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Tabl e 7. Forests in the tropics 

Country Forait Annual Forait 

Sb* and daforut. cover 



Fl Map Datcription of foraata 

Scala 



(thouaand aquara kllomatraa) 



OCEANIA contlnuad 



Palau 



0.4 



There is extensive lowland rainforest, with 7E% of 
Babeldoab (the largest island) covered with forest. 



Papua New 
Guinea 



453 360 1.1 318 

0.3% 367 



1.2 



There are lowland and montane reinforests over 
much of the country with swamp forests and a 
small amount of monsoon forest in the lowlands. 



Solomon Islends 


28 


25' 


0.01' 
0.04% 


24 
26 


Most forest is lowland rainforest, with smalt areas 
of montane rainforest, particularly on Guadalcanal. 


Tonga 


0.7 




- 


■ 


Lowland limestone moist forest is still present, 
with the best examples on 'Eua. 


Vanuatu 


12 


- 


0.04 
1.7% 


2.4 


Most forest is lowland rainforest with some 
montane reinforest. 



Western Samoa 



2.9 1.7' 



0.02' 
1.1' 



Lowland and montane rainforest and cloud forest 
are all present. Most lowlend rainforest is 
disturbed. 



CENTRAL AMERICA 

Antigua and 
Barbuda 



0.4 0.3' 



e 0.1 

0.2% 



There are small patches of humid forest in the 
south-west. 



Belize 



23 20 0.05 19 

0.2% 



1.0 0.5 Forests are mostly lowland subtropical moist 

forest, including some Pinus caribsea, merging 
with tropical moist forest in the south; there is also 
some lower montane moist forest. 



Costa Rica 



51 



0.5 
2.9% 



13 



0.2 Tropical moist forest is found discontinuously in 
the north, east and south-eest. There are small 
areas of lower montane and montane forest end 
vestiges of dry forest in the north-west. 



Cube 



110 



17 



0.2 
1.0% 



0.8 



Natural forest is largely confined to the extreme 
east and west, the Zapata peninsula, the north 
central coastal region and associated islands, and 
the Isle de Juventud. Most remaining forest is 
lowland moist (mostly seasonal) and inland swamp 
forest; there is also pine and sub-montane forest 
and a smaller amount of montane forest. 



Dominica 



0.6' 




0.7% 



0.4 



There is extensive lowland and lower montane 
rainforest with some montane and semi-evergreen 
forest. 



Dominican 
Republic 



48 



11 



0.4 
2.8% 



Most forest cover is in the west. There is a 
mosaic of evergreen rainforest, cloud forest, dry 
lowland forest, semi-deciduous forest, pine forest 
and mixed pine and broadleaved. 



El Salvador 



21 4.6' 0.03 1.2 

2.2% 



0.2 Remnant deciduous forests, montane pine-oak 
formations and cloud forests occur, most 
extensively in the northernmost parts of the 
country. 



108 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Biodivarslty 



Factors affecting forests 



Area % % cover 

prot. prot. In BML 



(thousand hectares) 



Diversity is fairly low, although higher than 
most Pacific Islands, with a significant number 
of national and regional endemics (many 
species are shared with the Federated States 
of Micronesia). 



Pressure on forests is fairly low, owing to a low human 
population density. 



Diversity is very high as Is regional endemism 
(much of the fauna and flora are shared with 
Irian Jaya); there is elso noteble national 
endemism. 



Between 15% and 25% of original forest cover has 
been cleared. Shifting cultivation and logging are the 
main causes of forest loss and degradation with 
fuelwood collection locally important. 



37 0.1% 



63% 



Diversity and endemism are generally poor to 
moderate, except for the avifauna which is rich 
in endemics. 



Only 10-20% of the land has been cleared. Excessive 
logging is the major threat although much of the land 
area is inaccessible. 



There are no protected areas in 

lUCN categories 

l-V. 



Diversity is low: there is moderate endemism. Much of the forest has been degraded. 



0% 



Diversity is low; endemism is low to moderate. 



Three-quarters of the land still has natural vegetation. 
Pressure on the land has been low but is increasing. 
Most valuable accessible timber has been logged out. 



There are no protected areas in 

lUCN categories 

l-V. 



Diversity is relatively low; regional endemism is 
high, with many species shared with American 
Samoa. 



Logging and conversion to agriculture have affected 
much accessible land. 



Diversity and endemism are low. 



Virtually all forest cover has been destroyed or 
degraded. Shifting cultivation, overgrazing and fire are 
the major threats. 



Diversity is very high; endemism is low as 
almost all species are shared with Guatemala 
and Mexico. 



The country is believed to have been extensively 
deforested under the Mayas, 1000 years ago, but much 
has regrown. Deforestation is at a low rate but recent 
influx of immigrants is changing this. Virtually all 
forests have been selectively logged. 



220 



12% 



Diversity is extremely high, because of varied 
topography and the presence of biotic 
elements from northern South America and 
Central America; endemism is moderate. 



60% of forest cover has been cleared in the past 50 
years, mostly for conversion to beef-cattle pasture. 
Most remaining forest is now protected. 



409 



31% 



92% 



Diversity is moderate; endemism is very high. 



Natural forest originally covered 60-90% of the island 
and now covers under 20%. Clearance was mainly for 
cattle-ranching and sugar plantations. There is 
considerable reafforestation at present, mostly as 
plantations, so that net deforestation rate is very low. 
Remaining natural forest is very poor in mature trees. 



139 



8% 



32% 



Diversity is fairly low. Regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism fairly low. 



Around 45% of the island has been cleared, mostly 
since 1945 and mostly for agriculture, particularly 
banana plantations. 



Diversity Is moderate. Regional endemism is 
high, with many species shared or formerly 
shared with Haiti. National endemism is 
moderate. 



80-90% of forest has been cleared; much of the 
remainder Is degraded. Clearance is mostly for 
agriculture and pasture-land and collection of forest 
products, especially fuelwood. 



Biota are relatively impoverished with low 
endemism. 



Over 90% of the forests have been cleared, for 
agriculture, cattle-ranching and coffee plantations. 
Population density is very high and land pressure great. 



109 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Country Forait Annual Forait 

Sb« and daforaat. covar 

wood- 
land 

(thouaand aquara kilomatraal 

CENTRAL AMERICA contlnuad 



Map 
Scaia 



Grenada 



0.3 0.07' e 0.06 

-4% 



Daacriptlon of forasta 



Forest, mostly lowland, sub-montane and montane 
rainforest, is concentrated in the interior of the 
island. There is some dry woodland in the south 
and east. 



Guadeloupe 



0.9 



0.3% 



0.9 



Forest is confined to Basse-Terre. mostly above 
400m, and is largely rainforest. 



Guatemala 



42 



0.8 

1.7% 



39 



2.0 



Coniferous, broadleaved and mixed forests are 
found. Broadleaved forests are moist lowland and 
montane, tropical and subtropical. Most cover is 
in the northern part of the country. 



28 0.2 0.01 0.2 

4.8% 



There are scattered vestiges of forest, mostly pine 
and mostly in the southern part of the country. 



112 



46 



1.1 
2.1% 



24 



0.5 Most forests are pine forests, distributed 
throughout the highland regions; there are 
montane moist forests mostly in the east and 
lowland moist forests east of these. 



Jamaica 



Martinique 



2,3 0.3 2.3 0.8 0.25 There are wet limestone forests mainly in the 

7.2% - Cockpit Country and John Crow Mountains and 

lower montane rainforest, montane forest and elfin 
woodland on the Blue Mountains; there are also 
small areas of swamp forest and dry limestone 
forest. 



0.4 



e 
0.5% 



0.4 



Most forest is rainforest, with apparently some 
areas of more-or-less pristine forest in the Plateau 
de la Concorde region. 



Mexico 



1,909 



486 



6.8 
1.3% 



82 



Lowland tropical rainforests are found mainly in 
the Yucatan peninsula, tropical seasonal forests 
mainly in the Sierra Madre del Sur and along the 
Pacific edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental. 
Conifer and oak forests occur widely in the three 
main sierras IMadre del Sur, Madre Occidental, 
Madre Oriental) and in Chiapas. There is a small 
amount of montane rain forest in the Sierra Madre 
Oriental. 



Nicaragua 



119 60 1.2 47 

1.9% 



Most forest is lowland tropical broadleaved found 
in the east; there are areas of montane moist 
forest and pine forest, mainly in the north, and 
fragmented dry forests in the west. 



Panama 



76 



0.6 
1.9% 



31 



Forests are mainly lowland tropical broadleaved 
and are found mostly in the northern and eastern 
parts of the country. There is some montane 
moist forest in the west. 



Puerto Rico 



8.9 



3.2 



-0.04 
-1.4% 



Forest is subtropical; most of the island was 
originally covered with moist forest with some wet 
forest and small areas of rainforest and montane 
forest in the centrel montane regions; there is dry 
forest in the south. 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Blodlvsntty 



Factors aff acting foratta 



Araa 
prot. 



% 
prot. 



% covar 
InBML 



(thouaand hactaras) 



Diversity is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



80-90% of the forest was cleared, meinly for cash 
crops and later for shifting agriculture. Forests are 
degraded by fuelwood collection. Some are now 
regenerating. 



Diversity is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



Clearance of forest was mostly for cash crops. Current 
deforestation rate is relatively low. 



3.1 3% 



42% 



Diversity is high and endemism is relatively 
high, because of the varied topography in the 
country. 



Agricultural colonization is the major threat to the moist 
forests in the north; overharvest of firewood is the 
main cause of destruction of the coniferous forests. 



22 0.6% 



Biota are now impoverished. Formerly 
diversity was moderate and regional endemism 
high with most species also occurring in the 
Dominican Republic. 



Over 98% of forest has been destroyed; major causes 
of destruction are tree-cutting for fuel and timber and 
clearance of land for agriculture. 



Diversity is high; endemism is moderate. 



Most deforestation is in the broadleaved forests and is 
as a result of agricultural expansion, particularly cattle- 
ranching over the last thirty years. 



110 5% 



30% 



Diversity is moderate; endemism Is very high. 



Over 90% of the forest has been cleared or degraded. 
Clearing for settlement and agricultural land is the main 
cause of deforestation. 



Diversity Is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



50-60% of the forest has been cleared; most remaining 
forest is secondary. Current deforestation rate is fairly 
low. 



National diversity is extremely high, largely 
because of the wide range of habitats and the 
fact that Mexico straddles two biogeographic 
realms; national and regional endemism are 
both high. 



Most deforestation Is in the tropical forests: 90% of 
mature tropical forests have been destroyed, most 
owing to the expansion of cattle-ranching; colonisation 
and agricultural development schemes are also 
important. 



1,037 



15% 



Diversity is fairly high, although generally 
lower than other Central American countries, 
largely because of limited altitudinal range. 
Endemism is low. 



Around 40% of forest cover has been cleared in the 
past 40 years, generally for conversion to agricultural 
land. 



Diversity is extremely high as the country has 
biota typical of northern South America as well 
as of Central America; endemism is relatively 
low. 



Around 60% of forest cover has been cleared. 
Government assisted and spontaneous colonisation and 
clearance for agriculture are the main pressures. 



885 



76% 



Diversity and endemism are both moderate; 
the island has suffered notable extinctions, 
especially of large terrestrial vertebrates, since 
human settlement. 



Over 99% of virgin forest has been cleared; however 
reforestation is occurring, both naturally and artificially, 
so that nearly 40% of the island now has some form of 
woody cover. 



Ill 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



T able 7. Forests in the tropics 

Country ForMt Annual For»it 

Siz* and dtlorast. cover 

wood- 
land 

(thouaand aquara kilonwtraa) 
CENTRAL AMERICA contlnuad 



Fl Map Daacrlptlon of foreata 

Scala 



Trinidad and 
Tobago 



5.1 



2 0.04 2 

2.1% 



1.6 



On Trinidad most forests are seasonal and found in 
the east; lowland evergreen forest is the most 
widespread, particularly in the south, with 
submontane prevalent in the north; there are small 
patches of dry, swamp and montane forest. 



St Kitts - Nevis 0.4 0.2' e 0.1 

-0.2% 



There are roughly equal areas of wet forest 
(including cloud forest), moist forest and dry 
forest. 



St Lucia 


0.6 


0.4' 


e 
5.2% 


0.05 


Most remaining forest is moist forest on the steep 
montane slopes. 


St Vincent & the 
Grenadines 


0.4 


0.1 


e 
2.1% 


0.1 


Most remaining forest is moist forest on 
inaccessible inland slopes. 



SOUTH AMERICA 



Bolivia 



1,084 



493 



6.3 
1.2% 



408 
4S1 



1.1 



The forests are structurally very diverse. There are 
evergreen montane, and both evergreen and semi- 
deciduous mid-altitude and lowland forests. 
Lowland forests are In the north and east, 
montane and mid-altitude run from the north-west 
to the south-central. 



Brazil 



8,457 5,611 37 3,871 

0.6% 3,415 



The major forest classes are Araucdria, Atlantic 
and Amazon including both dryland and flood plain 
(vArzea and igapb). Amazon forest in the north- 
western half of the country comprises over 95% 
of remaining forest. 



Colombia 



1,039 541 3.7 498 

0.7% SI1 



1.2 1.5 Submontane and montane forests run along both 

sides of the Andes. Lowland rainforest is mostly 
found in the Amazon basin in the south-east and in 
the Chocd along the Pacific coast. 



Ecuador 



277 120 2.4 118 

1.8% 142 



1.2 



Lowland rainforest occupies much of the eastern, 
Amazonian region and parts of the western 
lowlands. Montane forest is found along both 
sides of the Andes and dry forests occur In the 
southern part of the coastal plains. 



French Guiana 



88 80 



79 

81 



0.7 



Apart from open formations, savanna and swamps 
on the narrow coastal plain, the entire country is 
covered with lowland rainforest and some swamp 
forest. 



Guyana 



197 



184 



0.2 
0.1% 



182 
183 



0.7 



Apart from areas in the south-west and north-east 
the whole country is covered in forest, mostly 
lowland rainforest. 



Paraguay 



397 



129 



4.0 
2.7% 



26 
47 



1.6 



0.5 



The only moist tropical forests are along the 
Parand river on the eastern border. 



Peru 



1,280 679 2.8 663 

0.4% 



Moist forest is confined to the Andean sierras and 
the Amazonian basin or selva to the east of this. 
There is some dry seasonal forest on the coastal 
plain. 



112 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Blodlvaralty 



Factors affecting foratta 



Area 
prot. 



% 
prot. 



% cover 
in BML 



(thousand hectares) 



Diversity is high and endemism is moderately 
high, although the majority of species also 
occur in adjacent parts of Venezuela. 



Probably 50-60% of the forests have been cleared. 
Management of much remaining forest is reasonable, 
although there is extensive deforestation in the 
Northern Range of Trinidad owing to shifting cultivation 
and fires. 



2.7 



1% 



26% 



Diversity is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



Virtually all accessible forest was cleared for cash 
crops. Current deforestation is at a low rate; there is 
much fallow land on Nevis but reforestation is 
hampered by uncontrolled livestoclc grazing. 



Diversity is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



Primary forest now covers around 13% of the land. 
Deforestation is relatively high and mostly caused by 
conversion for agricultural land. 



Diversity is relatively low; regional (Lesser 
Antillean) endemism is high, national 
endemism low. 



Around 60% of the island has been deforested; less 
than 10% primary forest remains. Deforestation is 
largely for agricultural land and fuelwood. 



Diversity is very high with a moderate number 
of endemics. 



Main causes of deforestation are agricultural expansion, 
colonisation and logging. Collection of fuelwood is 
important at high altitudes. 



6,238 



14% 



92% 



Overall diversity is extremely high. Endemism 
is very high, particularly in the Atlantic forests. 



90% of the Atlantic forests and 80% of the Araucaria 
forests have been cleared; 10% of the Amazon has 
been cleared, mostly for cattle ranching but also for 
mining and hydroelectric schemes. 



6,718 



39% 



Diversity is extremely high, with the forests of 
the Andean foothills in the Amazon basin in 
southern Colombia and adjacent Peru perhaps 
floristically the world's most diverse. 
Endemism is high. 



Something under half the forest has been lost, mostly 
in the last 50 years. Shifting cultivation and human 
settlement are the major causes of forest loss, followed 
by cutting for fuelwood and logging. 



4,272 



8% 



75% 



Diversity is extremely high. Regional 
endemism is very high, with many species 
shared with adjacent Colombia and Peru. 



Forests in the Andes and in the western lowlands have 
been largely destroyed. The major causes of 
deforeststion are land clearance for colonisation and 
the production of fuelwood and charcoal. 



Diversity is high; endemism is low as fauna 
and flora are largely shared with Guyana, 
Suriname and north-eastern Brazil. 



Rainforest still covers 90% of the country; there is 
currently little deforestation pressure. 



There are no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V. 



Diversity is high; endemism is low as fauna 
and flora are largely shared with Suriname, 
Venezuela and northern Brazil. 



Most of the forest is still undisturbed; however, 
deforestation pressures are likely to increase. 



58 



0.3% 



The forests are generally little- studied but 
appear to have moderately high diversity and 
low endemism. 



Deforestation is extremely high. Indiscriminate clearing 
for agriculture is the main cause of forest loss. 
Collection of fuelwood is also important. 



13% 



Diversity is extremely high; the forests of the 
Andean foothills around the Amazon basin may 
be floristically the most diverse in the world. 
Endemism is high. 



The major cause of deforestation is the invasion of 
forests in the selva by campesinos migrating from the 
Sierras in search of land for settlment. 



2,031 



3% 



62% 



113 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests In the tropics 



Country For»tt Annual Foreit 

Sba ind daforaat. covar 

wood' 
land 

(thouaand aquara kllontatras) 
CENTRAL AMERICA contlnuad 



Map 
Scala 



Suriname 



156 148 0.1 146 

0.1% t33 



0.6 



Datcriptlon of foraata 



Apart from part of the coastal plain, virtually the 
whole country is forested, mostly with lowland 
seasonal moist forest. There is some submontane 
forest and extensive areas of swamp forest in the 
north. 



Venezuela 



882 457 6.0 406 

1.2% 642 



1.1 



Humid evergreen forests are found in the 
Amazonas-Guayan region in the south and east, in 
the Orinoco Delta (swamp forest) and in the area 
south and south-east of Lake Maracaibo in the 
north-west. Most forest is lowland, but there ere 
also extensive montane forests and some dry 
forests. 



AFRICA 



Angola 



1,247 231 1.7 23 

0.7% 



Moist forest is restricted to the interior of the 
Cabinda enclave and as an extended but 
fragmented series of forest areas along the 
Angolan escarpment from Dondo south to 
Quilenges; there are tiny fragments of montane 
forest. 



Benin 



111 49 0.7 0.5 

1.3% 0.4 



1.4 0.5 Small forest fragments are found in the south, one 

(Lama Forest! is c.50km', the others are all 
<5km=. 



Burundi 



2.3 



0.01 
0.6% 



0.5 
0.4 



Remaining forests are virtually all montane and 
found in the east. One tiny patch of Guineo- 
Congolean forest remains In the south-east at 
Kigwena. 



Cameroon 



465 204 1.2 74 0.9 0.5 Montane, submontane, lowland evergreen and 

0.6% '55 semi-deciduous forests are present in the southern 

two-thirds of the country. 



Central African 
Republic 



623 306 1.3 78 

0.4% S2 



1.4 



Rainforests are lowland and confined to the south- 
east and south-central parts of the country. 



Comoros 
(forest figs, 
include Mayottel 



(0.4)' 



(0.01) (0.21' 

(5%)' 



Rainforest is confined to steep and inaccessible 
mountain slopes above 4O0-500m; much of It is 
secondary. 



Congo 



342 



199 



0.3 
0.2% 



195 



1.0 



Swamp forest is found in the north-east In the 
Cuvette Congolaise; semi-deciduous lowland forest 
occurs in the Sangha region in the north-west and 
the Mayombe and Chaillu massifs in the south. 



CAte d'lvoire 



318 109 1.2 11 

1.0% 27 



1.0 



Fragmented evergreen moist forest is found in the 
south-east and south-west, grading into semi- 
deciduous forest and savannah in the centre and 
north. 



114 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Biodiversity 



Factors affecting forests 



Area 
prot. 



% 
prot. 



% cover 
InBML 



(thousand hectares) 



Diversity is high. Endemism is low as the fauna 
and flora are largely shared with French 
Guiana, Guyana and north-eastern Brazil. 



Outside the coastal plain, deforestation rates are very 
low. 



3% 



70% 



Diversity is extremely high; endemism is also 
high. 



At least 15% of forest has been lost in the past forty 
years. Most clearance appears to be for settled 
agriculture, initiated by the construction of roads 
through new areas. 



8,645 



16% 



45% 



The highlend and escarpment zones are rich In 
endemic birds and almost certainly in other 
taxa but are little-studied. 



The fregmented nature of the escarpment forests 
places them at risk from exploitation, modification and 
clearance. Their present status remains largely 
unknown. 



Somewhat impoverished but otherwise typical 
West African forest biota. 



Around 98% of the forest has been cleared. The small 
size of the remaining fragments makes them extremely 
vulnerable. There is strong demand for timber and other 
forest products within the country and from Nigeria. 



0% 



100% 



The montane forests are rich in regional 
endemics and are considered to have an 
unusually high overall species diversity. 



96-98% of the forest has been cleared. Human 
population density is extremely high. Forests are 
threatened by encroachment for agriculture and gold- 
mining, and collection of fueiwood and timber. 



23 



58% 



95% 



Montane forests and coastal lowland forests 
have high regional or national endemism; the 
latter are probably the most diverse in Africa. 
Elsewhere diversity is also high but endemism 
fairly low. 



Perhaps 50-60% of the forest has been cleared, 
although degradation is believed to be more important 
than deforestation. Montane and coastal lowland 
forests are highly threatened. Logging is economically 
important. 



1,106 



7% 



100% 



The flora is very poorly known. Fauna is 
typical of the Control African rainforests and is 
unlikely to be rich in endemics. 



Deforestation rates are low, chiefly because human 
population density is relatively low; high costs of 
transportation mean that commercial logging is limited 
but may increase with the building of the '4th parallel 
road'. 



113 



2% 



93% 



The fauna and flora are depauperate but 
reasonably rich in regional endemics (many 
species are shared with Mayotte). 



Only remnants of primary forest remain. Secondary 
forest has re-grown on some islands. There is very 
heavy pressure for agricultural land and high demand 
for firewood. 



There ere no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V. 



The forests are little studied, although species 
richness is evidently high. There is insufficient 
information to assess levels of endemism 
accurately. 



There has been relatively tittle forest clearance overall. 
Forest degradation through rapid cycle shifting 
agriculture and over-hunting is a major problem in the 
south. 



660 3% 



The forests have a rich West African flora and 
fauna, including an important number of 
regional endemics. 



80-90% of the forest has been cleared and current 
deforestation is rampant. Commercial logging has 
opened up forests which are then converted to 
agriculture, particularly cacao and coffee. 



552 20% 



100% 



115 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests In the tropics 



Country Forstt Annual Forest 

SIz* and daforait. covar 

wood- 
land 

(thouaand aquara kllometrea) 



Map Daacrlptlon of forasta 
Scala 



AFRICA 



Djibouti 



23 0.2 



0.0 




There are remnant forests, principally of Juniper, 
on the Goda Massif, mainly on the Plateau du Day. 



Equatorial 
Guinea 



28 



18 



0.07 
0.4% 



18 
/7 



1.7 



Rio Muni is largely covered with a mosaic of 
lowland rainforest and degraded lowland 
rainforest. Bioko has patches of primary forest 
between 600 and 800m and montane forest 
between 800 and 1400m. Annobon has some 
moist forest above 500m. 



Ethiopia 
(inc. Eritrea) 


1,101 


142 


0.4 
0.3% 


52 


1.5 


All moist forest is montane and is concentrated in 
the south-west. 


Gabon 


258 


182 


1.2 
0.6% 


181 
227 


- 


Forest is virtually all lowland rainforest with some 
inland swamp forest. 


Gambia 


10 


1.0 


0.01 

0.8% 


0.4= 
0.5 


1.5 


1 There are scattered remnants of riparian forest. 



Ghana 



230 



96 1.4 

1.3% 



16 
IS 



Fragmented forest is found in the south-west and 
along the eastern border. Wet evergreen is 
confined to the extreme south-west; forests 
become progressively drier east and north. 



Guinea 



246 67 0.9 16 1.3 0.7 Evergreen forests are largely confined to the 

1.2% 7.7 extreme south-east where there are lowland and 

submontane forests; there are scattered sub- 
montane and semi-deciduous forests elsewhere. 



Guinea-Bissau 



0.2 
0.8% 



8.0 



Closed broadleeved forests occur in patches on the 
lowland plain and along the coast, particularly in 
the south. 



Kenya 



567 12 0.07 4.1 

0.6% 



1.5 1 Montane forest is found in the south-west and 

central part of the country and there are lowland 
forest areas along the coast and in the south-west. 



Liberia 



97 



46 



0.3 
0.5% 



46 
41 



Evergreen moist forest is found in the east and 
south-east and moist semi-deciduous forest in the 
north-west. There is a small amount of montane 
forest on Mt Nimba. 



Madagascar 



582 



158 



1.4 
0.8% 



72 
42 



1.4 



Lowland rainforest is found along the eastern 
escarpment and in the Sambirano region in the 
north-west. Montane rainforest is found at higher 
altitudes in the same areas and on scattered 
massifs elsewhere. There is some seasonal semi- 
deciduous forest in the west. 



Malawi 



94 



35 



0.5 
1.4% 



12 
0.3 



There are small, scattered patches of montane, 
mid-altitude and lowland forest. 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Biodiversity 



Factors affecting forests 



Area % % cover 

prot. prot. In BML 



(thousand hectares) 



Diversity and endemism are low, although one 
bird species is confined to the forests and one 
palm nearly so. 



Forest is estimated to have covered 400,000 ha 2000 
years ago compared with less than 1,400 ha of primary 
forest now; climatic desiccation, overgrazing and 
fuelwood collection are the major threats. 



1.4 100% 



Although little studied, diversity and regional 
endemism are expected to be very high; the 
coastal forests, along with those in adjacent 
Gabon and Cameroon are probably the most 
diverse in Africa. National endemism is likely 
to be low. 



35-50% of forest is believed to have been cleared. 
Shifting agriculture is the main cause of forest 
disturbance in Rio Muni. On Bioko most forest was 
felled for cacao production. The collapse of the industry 
led to considerable regeneration of forests although this 
may now be being reversed. 



0% 100% 



The forests are diverse, although less so than 
those of the main Guineo-Congolean block. 
National endemism is relatively high. 



It is thought that 90-95% of original forest cover has 
been cleared. Fuelwood collection is a major pressure. 



The coastal forests in the region are probably 
the most diverse in Africa with high levels of 
regional endemism. 



Less than 20% of the forest has been cleared. Human 
population density is very low and pressure on the 
forests is therefore not great. 



891 4% 100% 



Diversity is moderate, although the fauna is 
now impoverished. Endemism is extremely 
low. 



80-90% of the forest is believed to have been cleared. 
Bushfires, overgrazing and a declining water-table 
appear to be the major problems. 



2 4% 100% 



The wet forests are rich in species with 
significant numbers of regional (West African) 
endemics. 



Around 90% of the forest has been cleared. The major 
causes of deforestation are fire damage, over-logging, 
shifting cultivation and an ever increasing demand for 
fuelwood. 



19 1% 100% 



l>ie south-eastern forests, particularly those on 
Mt Nimba, are rich in species with significant 
numbers of regional endemics. 



Substantial area.s of forest have been cleared. The 
major cause of forest loss is the traditional agricultural 
and pastoral practice in which land is cleared by fire. 



97 13% 78% 



There Is very little information on biological 
diversity; the forests may be expected to be 
reasonably rich but to have little national 
endemism. 



Probably over 80% of the forest has been cleared. 
Bushfires and clearance of land for cashew and 
groundnut cultivation, fruit farming, rice culture and 
timber exploitation as well as subsistence agriculture 
are the major threats. 



There are no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V. 



Inland lowland forests are moderately diverse 
but low in endemics. Montane and coastal 
forests are less diverse but have significant 
numbers of national or regional endemics. 



Perhaps as much as 90% of forest has been cleared. 
Unsustainable forestry practices, including illegal 
logging, fuelwood collection and encroachment for 
agriculture are the principal threats. 



119 29% 93% 



Forests are typically West African, and are rich 
in species, with a reasonable level of regional 
endemism and some national endemics. 



60-80% of forest has been cleared. Subsistence 
agriculture is the major cause of deforestation. 



93 23% 75% 



Diversity is very high and national endemism is 
extremely high in all major plant and animal 
groups. There are significant numbers of 
endemic genera and families as well as 
species. 



60-85% of forest has been destroyed. Unsustainable 
shifting subsistence cultivation is the major threat. In 
some areas burning to create cattle pasture is also 
important. 



231 6% 60% 



Diversity is moderate and there are a 
reasonable number of regional endemics. 
National endemism is low. 



At least 80% of forest has been cleared. Illegal felling 
and conversion for subsistence agriculture are threats. 



117 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



AFRICA 



Mauritius 



Country Forest Annual Forast 

Slu and daforast. covar 

wood- 
tand 

(thousand squara Mlonwtraa) 



2 0.5' 0.02 0.03' 

3.3%' 



Map 
Scale 



Description of forests 



Most remaining forest is montane. 



Mayotte 
Mozambique 



Included in Comoros 



There is some secondary forest in the highest 
areas. 



173 



1.0 
0.7% 



44 



There are small patches of forest along the coast 
and at the base of the mountainous region and a 
few montane forests in the west. 



Nigeria 



911 



156 



1.2 
0.7% 



56 
33 



Lowland forests are found in the south in more or 
less isolated blacks. There are some small areas of 
montane forest in the south-east. 



Rwanda 



25 1.6 1.4 

0.3% t.6 



Remaining forests are all montane and in the east. 



Reunion 



2.5 



0.8' 



Almost all remaining forest is montane. 



SSo Tom6 & 
Principe 



0.6' 



0.6' 
0.3 



Undisturbed rainforest occurs in the wettest areas 
of the south-west of each island on inaccessible 
terrain. 



Senegal 



193 



75 



0.5 4.5 

0.7% 2.0' 



1.5 



There are small remnants of lowland forest in the 
far south. 



Seychelles 


0.3 


0.04' 


- 


0.03' 


Native woodland only persists in inaccessible 
inland and upland localities. 


Sierra Leone 


72 


19 


0.1 
0.6% 


6.8 1.1 
5.0 


1 ' Lowland evergreen moist forest is found in the 
south-east; semi-deciduous forest is scsttered 
elsewhere, mostly in the east. 


Somalia 


627 


7.5 


0.03 
0.4% 


1.2 


There is coastal mosaic forest in the extreme 
south, some riparian forest along rivers and small 
areas of montane forest in the northern hills. 


Sudan 


2,376 


430 


4.8 

1.1% 


15 


There are small patches of lowland and montane 
moist forest in the south and south-west. 



886 



336 



4.4 
1.2% 



1.2 



The main closed forests are montane rainforests in 
the east; there are also small areas of swamp 
forest in the west and lowland forest mosaic along 
the coast. 



Togo 



0.2 2.5 

1.5% 1.0 



1.3 



Lowland forest is found along the southern part of 
the western border. 



118 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Blodiver>(ty 



Factors affecting forests 



Area % % cover 

prot. prot. In BML 



(thousand hectares) 



Diversity is relatively low. endemism is high. 
Significant numbers of species, particularly 
vertebrates, have become extinct since the 
arrival of humans. 



Virtually all (over 98%) primary forest has been 
destroyed. Logging, clearing for agriculture and the 
collection of fuelwood are the main causes of forest 
loss. 



Diversity is low; there is a reasonable number 
of regional (i.e. Comorean) endemics. 



The island was reportedly completely deforested in the 
19th century. 



There are no protected areas in 
lUCN categories l-V. 



The forests are little known but may be 
expected to have reasonable diversity and 
regional endemism. 



Little information is available on current threats to the 
forests. 



0% 



The forests are rich and have significant 
numbers of regional endemics, particularly in 
the east. 



Between 85 and 90% of forest has been cleared. 
Deforestation is the result of an increase in area 
devoted to subsistence farming and the spread of cash 
cropping by peasants. 



310 8% 



78% 



The forests are rich in regional endemics and 
are considered to have an unusually high 
overall species diversity. 



80-90% of forest has been cleared. Human population 
density Is extremely high. Forests are threatened by 
encroachment for agriculture and gold-mining, and 
collection of fuelwood and timber. The long term 
effects of recent upheavals are unclear. 



25 16% 



The forests are relatively depauperate but rich 
in regional endemics; a targe number of 
species, particularly vertebrates, have become 
extinct since the arrival of humans. 



Around 60-65% of forest has been cleared. Logging, 
clearing for agriculture and the collection of fuelwood 
are the main causes of deforestation. Invasion by 
introduced species is a major cause of degradation. 



The forests are relatively depauperate but have 
significant numbers of endemics, particularly 
birds. 



Estimates of forest area cleared vary from 40% to 
60%. Forest elsewhere on the islands has been cleared 
for agriculture. Existing forest is relatively undisturbed 
although fuelwood collection has started. 



There are no protected areas in 
!UCN categories l-V. 



Diversity is moderate, although the fauna is 
now impoverished. Endemism is extremely 
low. 



Moist forest has been largely reduced to degraded 
copses of mature trees. Demand for agricultural land 
are firewood are major threats, as is fire, leading to 
replacement of forests by grassland. 



5.2 3% 100% 



The forests are very depauperate but 
endemism is high. 



Forest was cleared for logging and agriculture and has 
largely been replaced by introduced species. 



Forest biota are typical West African, with high 
diversity and significant regional endemism. 



Over 90% of forest has been cleared or degraded. 
Slash and burn agriculture is the major cause of forest 
deterioration and loss. 



0% 90% 



The forest are not well documented but there 
is probably moderate diversity and some 
regional endemism. 



There is no reliable information on the amount of forest 
destroyed or current rates of deforestation. 



The forests are little studied but may have 
notable numbers of regional endemics. 



There is little Information, although conversion for cash 
crops, especially tea, has occurred. 



Diversity is high although lower than in the 
main Guineo-Congolean rainforests; regional 
endemism is very high. 



It is unclear how much forest has been cleared in 
historical times. Encroachment, illegal harvesting and 
burning are all major problems. 



193 18% 93% 



The forests are little known but may be 
expected to be diverse with reasonable 
regional endemism, but very little national 
endemism. 



It is thought that 85-95% of the forest has been 
cleared. Logging, conversion to agriculture and burning 
are all important. 



0.1 0.1% 76% 



119 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 
Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Country Forut Annual For»it F) Map Daicriptlon of foraata 

Sba and daforaat. covar Scala 



land 

(ttiouaand iquara kllomatraa) 



Uganda 200 63 0.7 8.1 1.7 0.5 There is lowland rainforest along the north-weslem 

1 .0% 7.0 shore of Lake Victoria and on the eastern rim of 

the rift valley escarpment in the west: montene 
forest is found on Mt Elgon in the east and in the 
south-west (chiefly Rwenzori and Bwindi). 

Zaire 2,268 1,133 7.3 1,035 0.5 1 Most of the forests ere semi-evergreen: swamp 

0.6% t,f9f and riverine forests and Guineo-Congoleen lowland 

rainforests occur in the Cuvette Centrale and 
montane forests in the eastern highlands. 

Zimbabwe 387 89 0.6 0.7 - - There is some montane forest and a very small 

0.7% 0.08 amount of lowland forest in the eastern ranges. 



120 



Table 7. Forests in the tropics 



Btodiveratty 



Factors affecting forasta 



Araa 
prot. 



% 
prot. 



% cover 
In BML 



{thousand hectares) 



The forests are diverse and have significant 
numbers of regional endemics. 



Three-quarters of forest area has been lost in the 
present century. Encroachment and logging are 
problems. 



69 



10% 



94% 



Zaire has the highest species diversity of any 
African country. The Albertine rift (eastern 
highland) forests in the east are rich in regional 
endemics. 



Around 40% of forest hes been cleared. Clearance for 
agriculture is the major threat; commercial logging is 
inhibited by poor transport network but is locally 
important (e.g. in the east). 



5,151 



4% 



84% 



Diversity is relatively low end endemJsm is 
believed very low. 



The great majority (probably over 95%) of closed forest 
has been cleared. Most remaining forests are in areas 
unsuitable for agriculture. There is some minor 
exploitetion for fuelwood and other forest products. 



121 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 8. National protected areas 

Most countries have developed systems of protected areas and these make a vital contribution to the 
conservation of the world's natural and cultural resources. Protected areas can allow maintenance of 
representative samples of natural habitats and biological diversity; they can, in watershed areas for 
example, promote environmental stability in adjacent regions; they can allow opportunities for rural 
development, scientific research and monitoring, conservation education, and for recreation and 
tourism. 

The nature and effectiveness of protected area systems vary considerably from one country to 
another, depending on needs and priorities, and on differences in legislative, institutional and financial 
support. The United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas is prepared as a standardised 
listing of protected areas which on the basis of available information meet certain criteria; the latest 
edition contains data for 1993 (lUCN, 1994). This list is based on collaboration between lUCN/CNPPA, 
WCMC and national agencies concerned with the establishment and management of protected areas. 
The table below is produced from the WCMC protected areas database from which the UN List is also 
created. 

Protected areas vary enormously in size, from tiny areas of a few tens of square metres to vast regions 
covering thousands of square kilometres. There has been much debate about the optimal size and 
configuration of reserves and reserve networks. For the purposes of species conservation it is 
becoming increasingly evident that larger does not necessarily mean better, in that a number of small 
reserves may protect more species overall than one large reserve of the same total size. Smaller 
reserves may in some cases also be easier to manage and protect. Conversely, small reserves may not 
be big enough to support viable populations of species (almost always animals) which have large home 
ranges. They also have high perimeter length in relation to their area, and thus may be susceptible to 
environmental degradation through edge effects and to human encroachment if they are not 
adequately protected. This last consideration is likely to be one of increasing importance in parts of 
the world with high and increasing human population densities. In such areas, it seems likely that long- 
term maintenance of at least some natural and semi-natural ecosystems will depend on very large 
protected areas. These are also of fundamental importance in the maintenance of "wilderness", a 
concept which has become of major conservation concern in developed countries. 

Figure 7 shows the 1 11 protected areas in the world whose individual area is greater than 2,000,000 
ha (categories l-V, data from WCMC protected areas database). A significant number of these are at 
high latitudes, particularly in northern boreal and Arctic regions of relatively low species diversity, and 
are evidently of greater importance in wilderness preservation than in the maintenance of global 
biological diversity. However, a gratifying number are situated in tropical regions, including northern 
South America, which appears to have highest known level of regional biological diversity in the world 
(see Fig. 2). If these protected areas can be adequately managed in the long-term they will 
undoubtedly play an extremely important role in the maintenance of the global biodiversity estate. 

Three important types of area have not been included in the UN List. These are those managed for 
forestry, those managed by or on behalf of indigenous peoples, and those in private ownership. 

Managed areas in the forestry sector cover over 10% of the tropics. Throughout the tropics, forestry 
policy is undergoing substantial change, with increased emphasis being placed on a balanced approach 
to sustainable production and conservation. However, there is still much to be achieved, and in many 
countries the conservation value of the forest estate has not been assessed. Areas managed by or on 
behalf of indigenous peoples are frequently of great importance for nature conservation. Collectively, 
they cover over seven million square kilometres and their distribution tends to correlate strongly with 
areas of biological richness. Colombia, for example, has ceded over 25% of its territory to indigenous 
peoples, and most of this is in biologically diverse tropical forest regions. Private protected areas are 
not usually significant in terms of the area they cover, but they are important because of the quality 
of management and degree of protection afforded to them. Private areas include those areas 
administered by foundations and private enterprise, as well as those established and run by 



Table 8. National protected areas 

communities themselves. Many private initiatives usefully support and complement state systems, and 
they tend to assume greater significance where state resources are very limited. 

NOTES TO TABLE 8 

This table provides data on the number and area of national protected areas in each of the categories l-V, and an indication of 
the total country area under such protection. 

Three criteria determine whether a site is included in the UN List and is thus accounted for in this table: 

Size: only protected areas of more than 1 ,000 hectares are included, with the exception of offshore or oceanic Islands of at least 

100 hectares where the whole island is protected (one thousand hectares is equivalent to 10 square kilometres or 2,471 acres 

or 3.86 square miles). 

Management objectives: a series of protected area management categories, defined by management objectives, are Identified 

by lUCN/CNPPA. Definitions of each category are provided below. The 1993 edition of the list includes sites in lUCN 

Management Categories I through V. The management categories used are outlined below. In mid-1 993, a new protected areas 

management category system was approved by the lUCN Council, on the advice of CNPPA. 

Authority of the management agency: sites managed by the highest appropriate level of government and sites managed by state 

authorities within federal systems have been included. 

Protected area management categories l-lll imply more complete protection than categories IV (where resource extraction is 
permitted) and V (where traditional land uses are maintained). The data are obtained with the cooperation of protected area 
managers and agencies around the world, and in collaboration with lUCN/CNPPA, and are maintained in the Protected Areas 
database at WCMC. 

Columns 2-11: For each of the management categories l-V two columns contain data on the number of protected areas and their 
combined area per country. See note on different management of categories l-lll and IV-V. 

Columns 12-13: These two columns give the combined total number of protected areas in categories l-V for each country, and 
their combined area. 

Columns 14-16: These refer to percent of country land area that is protected 'strictly' (categories l-lll) or partially (categories 
IV-V), and overall (l-V). It is important to note a source of bias in these data columns: in several cases the protected area total 
includes marine areas but because land area is used to calculate the percent protected figure, this last will be inflated 
significantly where in countries with relatively large marine protected areas (eg. Kiribati, Panama, St Vincent, Australia - Great 
Barrier Reef Marine Park and Ecuador - Galapagos Marine Resource Reserve). 

1978 Protected Areas Management categories 

I - STRICT NATURE RESERVE/SCIENTIFIC RESERVE 

To protect nature and maintain natural processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative 
examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the 
maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state. 

II - NATIONAL PARK 

To protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational, and 
recreational use. These are relatively large natural areas not materially altered by human activity where extractive 
resource uses are not allowed. 

III - NATURAL MONUMENT/NATURAL LANDMARK 

To protect and preserve nationally significant natural features because of their special interest or unique 
characteristics. These are relatively small areas focused on protection of specific features. 

IV - MANAGED NATURE RESERVE/WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

To assure the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic 
communities, or physical features of the environment where these may require specific human manipulation for their 
perpetuation. Controlled harvesting of some resources can be permitted. 

V - PROTECTED LANDSCAPES AND SEASCAPES 

To maintain nationally significant natural landscapes which are characteristic of the harmonious interaction of man and 
land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal life style and 
economic activity of these areas. These are mixed cultural/natural landscapes of high scenic value where traditional 
land uses are maintained. 



123 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Catsgory I 
No. Ana (ha) 



Catagory II 
No. Araa (ha) 



Catagory III 
No. Araa (ha) 



EUROPE 



Albania 








6 


9,600 








Austria 








1 


5,773 








Belgium 




















Belarus 


1 


63,458 


1 


81,023 








Bosnia and Herzegovina 








1 


17,250 








Bulgaria 


26 


61,824 


3 


221,253 


2 


4,424 


Croatia 


4 


19,784 


5 


46,331 


1 


1,100 


Czech Republic 


4 


12,876 


2 


74,820 








Denmark 


9 


23,838 








2 


6,290 


Estonia 


6 


68,428 


1 


176,922 








Finland 


15 


150,820 


22 


393,990 








France 


7 


43,680 


8 


288,797 








Germany 








1 


13,100 








Greece 








8 


60,392 


2 


18,000 


Hungary 








5 


159,139 








Iceland 


1 


270 


3 


180,100 


5 


38,604 


Ireland 








S 


36,798 








Italy 








11 


471,918 


1 


1,500 


Latvia 


4 


38,443 








1 


2,520 


Liechtenstein 




















Lithuania 


4 


20,784 


5 


132,950 








Luxembourg 




















Macedonia 








3 


108,338 


5 


47,516 


Moldova 


2 ■ 


6,200 














Netherlands 


3 


4,211 


6 


21,370 


23 


226,195 


Norway 


55 


2,726,383 


20 


2,328,110 








Poland 


1 


1,592 


15 


148,326 








Portugal 


2 


13,072 


1 


21,100 


1 


2,730 


Romania 


12 


60,741 


11 


841,561 








Slovakia 


1 


1,193 


5 


199,724 


1 


1,517 


Slovenia 








1 


84,805 








Spain 








10 


132,478 








Sweden 


38 


949,101 


15 


495,028 








Switzerland 


1 


16,887 














United Kingdom 


S 


23,018 


4 


20,272 








Yugoslavia 


1 


1,124 


7 


148,775 


1 


1,600 


ASIA 














Afghanistan 








1 


41,000 








Armenia 


3 


63,900 


1 


150,000 








Azerbaijan 


12 


190,860 














Bangladesh 




















Bhutan 


1 


64,400 


4 


660,600 









Brunei 



66,274 



48,859 



124 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Catagory IV 

Araa (ha) 



Catagory V 
No. Araa (ha) 



Total l-V 
No. Total Araa (ha) 



Parcant country araa protactad 
Totally Partially 

l-lll IV-V 



i-V 



5 


24,400 








11 


34,000 


0.33 


0.85 


1.18 


47 


372,046 


122 


1,627,656 


170 


2,005,475 


0.07 


23.85 


23.92 


1 


3,988 


2 


73,150 


3 


77,138 


0.00 


2.53 


2.53 








8 


98,007 


10 


242,488 


0.70 


0.47 


1.17 


1 


1,434 


3 


6,375 


5 


25,059 


0.34 


0.15 


0.49 


13 


50,748 


2 


31,641 


46 


369,890 


2.59 


0.74 


3.34 


5 


15,418 


14 


302,711 


29 


385,344 


1.19 


5.63 


6.82 


4 


6,361 


24 


972,751 


34 


1,066,808 


1.11 


12.42 


13.53 


61 


1,166,143 


41 


193,479 


113 


1,388,750 


0.70 


31.54 


32.24 


28 


138,823 


4 


55,978 


39 


440,151 


5.44 


4.32 


9.76 


45 


2,183,835 








82 


2,728,645 


1.62 


6.48 


8.10 


58 


253,634 


37 


5,015,375 


110 


5,601,486 


0.61 


9.69 


10.30 


88 


262,640 


415 


8,919,962 


504 


9,195,702 


0.04 


25.73 


25.77 


6 


11,483 


8 


133,178 


24 


223,053 


0.59 


1.10 


1.69 


6 


13,815 


42 


401,060 


53 


574,014 


1.71 


4.46 


6.17 


5 


51,950 


8 


645,000 


22 


915,924 


2.13 


6.78 


8.91 


7 


10,033 








12 


46,831 


0.53 


0.15 


0.68 


86 


221,922 


74 


1,579,485 


172 


2,274,825 


1.57 


5.98 


7.55 


23 


62,177 


17 


671,584 


45 


774,724 


0.64 


11.52 


12.16 








1 


6,000 


1 


6,000 


0.00 


37.50 


37.50 


37 


99,615 


30 


381,370 


76 


634,719 


2.36 


7.38 


9.73 








1 


36.000 


1 


36,000 


0.00 


13.93 


13.93 


5 


46,894 


3 


13,771 


16 


216,518 


6.06 


2.36 


8.42 














2 


6,200 


0.18 


0.00 


0.18 


47 


136,765 








79 


388,541 


6.12 


3.32 


9.44 


8 


17,645 


31 


464,374 


114 


6,536,512 


15.61 


1.49 


17.09 


21 


67,967 


74 


2,845,668 


111 


3,063,553 


0.48 


9.32 


9.80 


10 


108,616 


11 


437,102 


25 


582,620 


0.40 


5.91 


6.31 


11 


22,788 


5 


159,815 


39 


1,084,905 


3.80 


0.77 


4.57 


15 


41,990 


18 


771,085 


40 


1,015,509 


14.42 


57.93 


72.36 








9 


23,282 


10 


108,087 


4.19 


1.15 


5.34 


86 


1,736,920 


119 


2,376,232 


215 


4,245,630 


0.26 


8.15 


8.41 


135 


1,254,205 


26 


290,711 


214 


2,989,045 


3.28 


3.50 


6.78 


48 


241,198 


60 


472,622 


109 


730,707 


0.41 


17.29 


17.70 


64 


292,186 


115 


4,792,490 


191 


5,127,966 


018 


20.76 


20.94 



16,133 



11 



179,334 



21 



346,966 



1.48 



1.91 



3.40 



177,438 





83,332 



241,100 










13,458 





6 
4 

12 
8 
9 



218,438 
213,900 
190,860 
96,790 
966,100 



0.06 
7.18 
2.20 
0.00 
15.55 



0.27 


0.33 


0.00 


7.18 


0.00 


2.20 


0.67 


0.67 


5.17 


20.72 



10 



115,133 



19.97 



125 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 
Table 8. National protected areas 



Category I Category II Category III 

No. Area (ha) No. Area Ihal No. Area (hal 



ASIA continued 



3 98,425 1 30,000 

1 9.337 

14 167,186 1 19.700 

2 196,043 64 3,677,580 



China 
Cyprus 
Georgia 
India 

Indonesia 73 l:]3?.\°. .?.?. .T.'.™.?.'.?.?.!. .?. .°. 

I,an 18 1,904,503 7 1,075,300 2 6,150 

Israel 1 3,090 

Japan 22 214,484 15 1,299,148 

Jordan 1 1,200 

Kazakhstan 8 ^fJZ!:. 1 ™Hf?. ° ■"•• 

1 43,890 



Korea, P.D.R. 



Korea, Republic 5 19,346 

Kuwait 1 2,000 

Kyrgyzstan 4 264,668 1 19,400 

Lebanon 1 3,500 



Malaysia 28 90,070 16 814,009 

Mongolia 12 224,280 2 5,393,560 

Myanmar 1 160,580 

Nepal 8 1,014,400 

Oman 1 46,000 



Pakistan 6 882,195 

Philippines 10 247,050 5 19,715 

Qatar 

Russia 75 37,649,408 23 4,545.515 4 8,990 

Saudi Arabia 2 279,000 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 3 31,575 22 436,339 

Taiwan 4 303,486 

Tajikistan 3 85,700 

Thailand 74 4,336,026 

Turkey 4 20,903 19 395,977 

Turkmenistan 8 1,111,637 

Ukraine 13 179,197 3 169,803 

Uzbekistan 9 212,686 1 31,503 

Viet Nam 9 202,427 

OCEANIA 

Australia 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

New Zealand 

Northern Marianas 

Palau 

Papua New Guinea 



80 


3,816,022 


415 


27,849,176 


71 


262,416 


5 


18,922 














2 


20,130 














102 


1,693,285 


30 


4,214,581 


7 


23,545 


4 


1,541 


























1 


1,200 








3 


7,323 









126 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Category IV 
No. Area (ha) 



Category V 
No. Area (ha) 



Total l-V 
No. Total Area (ha) 



Percent country area protected 
Totally Partially 

l-lll IV-V 



421 


55,590,538 


38 


2,347,600 


463 


58,066,563 


0.01 


6.04 


6.05 


3 


66,000 








4 


75,337 


1.01 


7.14 


8.14 














15 


186,886 


2.68 


0.00 


2.68 


307 


10,458,515 


1 


18,600 


374 


14,350,738 


1.22 


3.31 


4.53 


46 


3,649,132 


28 


518,914 


175 


18,565,292 


7.50 


2.17 


9.67 


4 


1,144,918 


37 


4,168,695 


68 


8,299,566 


1.81 


3.22 


5.04 


13 


296,345 


1 


8,400 


16 


307,835 


ai5 


14.67 


14.82 


30 


492,342 


13 


752,252 


80 


2,758,226 


4.09 


3.37 


7.46 


6 


79,200 


3 


209,900 


10 


290,300 


001 


3.01 


3.02 














9 


891,472 


0.33 


0.00 


033 


1 


14,000 








2 


57,890 


036 


0.11 


0.47 


3 


27,148 


20 


647,30* 


28 


693,798 


0.20 


6.85 


7.05 








1 


25,000 


2 


27,000 


0.08 


1.03 


1.11 














S 


284,068 


1.43 


OOO 


1.43 














1 


3,500 


0.34 


OOO 


0.34 


9 


579,745 


1 


1,011 


54 


1,484,835 


2.72 


1.74 


4.46 








1 


550,000 


15 


6,167,840 


3.59 


0.36 


3.94 








1 


12,691 


2 


173,271 


0.24 


0.02 


0.26 


4 


94,100 








12 


1,108,500 


7.17 


0.67 


7.84 


27 


3,688,650 


1 


1,600 


29 


3,736,250 


0.17 


13.57 


13.74 


45 


2,716,693 


4 


122,051 


55 


3,720,939 


1.10 


3.53 


4.63 


8 


321,243 


4 


17,919 


27 


605,927 


0.89 


1.13 


2.02 


1 


1,619 








1 


1,619 


OOO 


0.14 


0.14 


95 


23,279,636 


2 


53,210 


199 


65,536,759 


2.47 


1.37 


3.84 


7 


5,472,400 


1 


450,000 


10 


6,201,400 


0.12 


2.47 


2.58 


1 


2,796 








1 


2,796 


OOO 


4.54 


4.54 


31 


328,039 








56 


795,953 


7.13 


5.00 


12.13 


8 


79,024 


2 


44,087 


14 


426,597 


8.21 


3.33 


11.54 














3 


85,700 


0.60 


0.00 


0.60 


36 


2,671,150 


1 


13,100 


111 


7,020,276 


8.44 


5.22 


13.66 


14 


300,650 


7 


101,911 


44 


819,441 


0.53 


0.52 


1.05 














8 


1,111,637 


2.28 


OOO 


2.28 


4 


173,367 








20 


522,367 


0.58 


0.29 


0.87 














10 


244,189 


055 


0.00 


0.55 


50 


1,127,361 








59 


1,329,788 


061 


3.42 


4.03 


294 


13,344,479 


32 


48,273,364 


892 


93,545,457 


4.16 


8.02 


12.18 














5 


18,922 


1.03 


0.00 


1.03 


1 


6,500 








3 


26,630 


29.43 


9.50 


38.93 


67 










206 


6,147,794 


22.37 


0.82 


23.19 














4 


1,541 


3.23 


0.00 


3.23 














1 


1,200 


2.44 


0.00 


2.44 


2 


74,693 








5 


82,016 


0.02 


0.16 


0.18 



127 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Category I 
No. Am (ha) 



Catagory II 
No. Araa (ha) 



Category III 
No. Araa <hal 



OCEANIA continued 



Western Samoa 








1 


2,857 








NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA 














Antigua and Barbuda 








2 


6,128 








Aruba 














Bahamas 


1 


1,813 


4 


121,576 








Belize 


3 


44,401 


4 


115,565 








Canada 


100 


1,481,114 


251 


32,940,384 


2 


2,693 


Costa Rica 


4 


15,169 


13 


488,337 








Cuba 


9 


39,978 


9 


116,942 








Dominica 








1 


6,872 








Dominican Republic 








B 


563,934 








El Salvador 








1 


3,222 








Greenland 


1 


1,050,000 


1 


97,200,000 








Guatemala 








6 


768,400 


5 


10,975 


Haiti 








2 


7,500 








Honduras 








16 


469,453 








Jamaica 








1 


1,520 








Mexico 


6 


316,498 


33 


1,597,788 


3 


9,558 


Nicaragua 


2 


345,000 


3 


25,327 


1 


18,930 


Panama 








12 


1,318,674 


1 


5,400 


Saint Kitts and Nevis 








1 


2,610 








Saint Lucia 




















Saint Vincent 




















Trinidad and Tobago 


1 


1,800 














United States 


45 S 


14,365,978 


178 


22,013,247 


70 


8,138,507 


SOUTH AMERICA 














Argentina 


32 


1,330,184 


32 


1,675,539 


2 


19,500 


Bolivia 


1 


135,000 


7 


3,638,520 








Brazil 


63 


3,940,314 


97 


16,483,686 








Chile 








30 


8,361,367 


2 


13,606 


Colombia 


5 


45,365 


33 


7,020,690 


2 


1,947,000 


Ecuador 


4 


658,280 


6 


2,428,457 








Guyana 








1 


58,559 





,0 


Paraguay 








12 


1,362,811 


1 


2,500 


Peru 








8 


2,413,718 


7 


1,629,908 


Suriname 








2 


86,570 








Uruguay 














2 


15,250 


Venezuela 








42' 


13,093,019 


11 


1,121,753 


AFRICA 














Algeria 


4 


36,800 


8 


11,764,543 








Angola 








1 


790000 








Benin 








2 


777,500 









128 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Category IV 

Aru Iha) 



CaMgory V 
No. Area (hal 



Toul l-V 
No. ToUl Araa (ha) 



Parcant country araa protactad 
Totally Partially 

l-lll IV-V 



7,215 



10,072 



1.01 



2.54 



6,128 



13.86 



0.00 



6 


975 








10 


124,364 


8.90 


0.07 


8.97 


7 


163,155 








14 


323,121 


6.97 


7.10 


14.07 


176 


38,676,635 


111 


9,444,666 


640 


82,545,492 


3.47 


4.85 


8.32 


9 


129,387 


3 


5,671 


29 


638,564 


9.89 


2.65 


12.55 


15 


163,161 


20 


572,676 


53 


892,757 


1.37 


6.43 


7.80 














1 


6,872 


9.15 


0.00 


9.15 


6 


440,140 


3 


44,210 


17 


1,048,284 


11.64 


10.00 


21.64 


1 


2,000 








2 


5,222 


0.15 


0.09 


0.24 














2 


98,250,000 


44.95 


0.00 


44.95 


5 


52,591 


1 


1,000 


17 


832,966 


7.16 


0.49 


7.65 








1 


2,200 


3 


9,700 


0.27 


0.08 


0.35 


28 


393,330 








44 


862,783 


4.19 


3.51 


7.70 














1 


1,520 


0.13 


0.00 


0.13 


12 


3,886,725 


11 


3,918,163 


65 


9,728,732 


0.98 


3.96 


4.93 


53 


514,193 








59 


903,450 


2.63 


3.47 


6.10 


2 


2,258 








15 


1,326,332 


16.86 


0.03 


16.89 














1 


2,610 


10.00 


0.00 


10.00 


1 


1.494 








1 


1,494 


0.00 


2.41 


2.41 


2 


8,284 








2 


8,284 


0.00 


21.30 


21.30 


5 


13,928 








6 


15,728 


0.35 


2.72 


3.07 


402 


47,277,905 


389 


12,442,379 


1,494 


104,238,016 


4.75 


6.37 


11.12 


18 


1,327,691 


2 


20,140 


86 


4,373,054 


1.09 


0.49 


1.57 


16 


5,446,199 


1 


13,300 


25 


9,233,019 


3.43 


4.97 


8.40 


49 


4,453,098 


74 


7,312,739 


273 


32,189,837 


2.40 


1.38 


3.78 


34 


5,350,152 








66 


13,725,125 


11.14 


7.12 


18.26 


1 


2,045 


38 


342,911 


79 


9,358,011 


7.91 


0.30 


8.22 


2 


7,994,613 


3 


32,543 


15 


11,113,893 


6.69 


17.39 


24.08 














1 


58,559 


0.27 


0.00 


0.27 


1 


30,000 


5 


87,695 


19 


1,483,006 


3.36 


0.29 


3.65 


2 


75,347 


5 


57,217 


22 


4,176,190 


3.15 


0.10 


3.25 


11 


649,400 








13 


735,970 


0.53 


3.96 


4.49 


1 


8,000 


5 


8,836 


8 


32,086 


0.08 


0.09 


0.17 


5 


96,448 


42 


12,011,086 


100 


26,322,306 


15.59 


13.28 


28.86 


6 


41,507 


1 


76,438 


19 


11,919,288 


4.95 


0.05 


5.00 


3 


891,200 


2 


960,000 


6 


2,641,200 


0.63 


1.48 


2.12 














2 


777,500 


6.90 


0.00 


6.90 



129 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 8. National protected areas 



CaMgory I 
No. Arn (ha) 



Catagory II 
No. Araa (ha) 



Catagory III 
No. Araa (ha) 



AFRICA contlnuad 



Botswana 

Burkina Faso 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Central African Republic 

Chad 
Congo 

CAte d'lvoire 
Djibouti 
Egypt 








86,(XX) 



9,731,450 

489,300 



1,031,800 

3,102,000 







128,000 



37,000 



414,000 

126,600 

1,762,500 

10,000 

61,500 



Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia 

Ghana 

Guinea 





15,000 



38,570 

125,300 



12 

3 
6 
1 



3,040,200 


18,440 
1,058,430 

38,200 



Kenya 

Lesotho 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 








10 








568,802 



32 

1 

3 
6 



3,451,383 



129,230 

51,000 

171,307 



Malawi 

Mali 

Mauritania 

Mauritius 

Morocco 







310,000 



55,320 



696,200 

350,000 

1,186,000 







Mozambique 

Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 




8,975,751 

220,000 
2,226,400 

327,000 




24,462 






Senegal 
Seychelles 
Sierra Leone 
Somalia 
South Africa 





35,000 





39,000 



6 
2 



53 



1,012,450 

2,893 





4,200,111 



Sudan 

Swaziland 

Tanzania 

Togo 

Tunisia 







450 




12 



8,499,000 



4,099,975 

357,290 

44,417 



15,000 







Uganda 
Zaire 
Zambia 
Zimbabwe 

ANTARCTICA 








19 








242,535 



7 

8 

19 

10 



876,187 
9,916,625 
6,358,500 
2,701,900 







5,138 

2,000 



130 



Table 8. National protected areas 



Catagoiy IV 
No. Area (ha) 



Category V 
No. Area (ha) 



Total l-V 
No. Total Area (ha) 



Parcant country area protected 
Totally Partially 

l-lll IV-V '-V 



4 


931,830 








9 


10,663,280 


16.92 


1.62 


18.54 


9 


2,172,600 








12 


2,661,900 


1.78 


7.93 


9.71 








3 


88,865 


3 


88,865 


b.oo 


3.19 


3.19 


7 


1,018,625 








14 


2,050,425 


2.17 


2.14 


4.31 


8 


2,918,000 








13 


6,106,000 


5.10 


4.67 


9.77 


7 


11,080,000 








9 


11,494,000 


0.32 


8.63 


8.95 


9 


1,050,794 








10 


1,177,394 


0.37 


3.07 


3.44 


2 


102,350 








12 


1,992,850 


5.86 


0.32 


6.18 














1 


10,000 


0.43 


0.00 


0.43 


8 


694,700 








12 


"93,200 


0.10 


0.69 


0.79 


11 


2,982,400 








23 


6,022,600 


2.75 


2.70 


5.45 


5 


1,030,000 








6 


1,045,000 


0.06 


3.85 


3.90 


2 


4,500 








5 


22,940 


1.72 


0.42 


2.15 


2 


6,620 








9 


1,103,620 


4.60 


0.03 


4.63 














3 


163,500 


0.67 


0.00 


0.67 


4 


52,373 








36 


3,503,756 


5.92 


0.09 


6.01 


1 


6,805 








1 


6,805 


0.00 


0.22 


0.22 














1 


129,230 


1.16 


0.00 


1.16 


3 


122,000 








6 


173,000 


0.03 


0.07 


0.10 


21 


375,190 








37 


1,115,299 


1.25 


0.63 


1.88 


4 


362,300 








9 


1,058,500 


7.40 


3.85 


11.25 


10 


3,661,989 








11 


4,011,989 


0.28 


2.95 


3.24 


1 


250,000 








4 


1,746,000 


1.45 


0.24 


1.69 


3 


4,023 








3 


4,023 


0.00 


2.16 


2.16 


3 


237,000 


2 


69,800 


10 


362,120 


0.12 


0.67 


0.79 


1 


2,000 








1 


2,000 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


4 


434,664 


2 


782,900 


12 


10,217,777 


10.92 


1.48 


12.40 


4 


8,196,240 








5 


8,416,240 


0.19 


6.91 


7.09 


13 


744,869 








19 


2,971,269 


2.41 


0.81 


3.22 














2 


327,000 


12.42 


0.00 


12.42 


4 


1,168,259 








10 


2,180,709 


5.15 


5.94 


11.09 














3 


37,893 


93.79 


0.00 


93.79 


2 


82,013 








2 


82,013 


0.00 


1.13 


1.13 


1 


180,000 








1 


180,000 


0.00 


0.29 


0.29 


183 


2,689,147 








237 


6,928,258 


3.58 


2.27 


5.85 


6 


762,500 


1 


116,000 


16 


9,382,500 


3.40 


0.35 


3.74 


4 


45,920 








4 


45,920 


0.00 


2.64 


2.64 


18 


9,790,000 








30 


13,889,975 


4.36 


10.42 


14.78 


8 


289,616 








11 


646,906 


6.29 


5.10 


11.39 














7 


44,867 


0.27 


0.00 


0.27 


22 


1,026,020 


2 


6,539 


31 


1,908,746 


3.70 


4.36 


8.07 














8 


9,916,625 


4.23 


0.00 


4.23 














21 


6,363,638 


8.46 


0.00 


8.46 


4 


18,280 


10 


345,643 


25 


3,067,823 


6.93 


0.93 


7.86 



19 



242,535 



0.02 



0.00 



0.02 



131 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 

Table 9. Systematics collections 

Systematics - the discovery, description and classification of species - Is a discipline with low public 
profile yet fundamental to human understanding, use and management of biological diversity. 

Systematics is important for many reasons. The correct identification of experimental material is 
essential in order to allow results to be corroborated by other researchers. Identification of pests and 
pathogens to species or strain is essential before control measures can be planned. Identification of 
discrete fishery stocks allows management to be tuned appropriately. Information on the phylogeny 
of species allows properties known to exist in one species to be sought after in related species, or 
permits related species to be investigated for hitherto unknown but possibly useful properties; such 
phylogenetic information is the basis for much agricultural improvement (and is one reason why data 
on wild relatives are given in Tables 4 and 5 above). Recent literature provides an abundance of 
concrete examples of the significance of systematics to biomedical research, healthcare, agricultural 
development, forestry and fisheries management, and to general understanding of the biosphere (eg. 
Systematics Agenda 2000; NERC, 1992, The New Taxonomy; Hawksworth and Ritchie, 1993, 
Biodiversity and Biosystematic Priorities: microorganisms and invertebrates). 

Systematics collections, eg. preserved plant or animal material, living collections of fishes, trees, or 
microorganisms, perform several functions. They are a material record of human inventory and 
understanding of biodiversity; museum specimens are essential if known species are to be classified 
and new species recognised as new; collections provide material or research guidance for all kinds of 
applied biology, including medical science and biotechnology; and they serve to raise public awareness 
of and interest in the living world. 

Because of their fundamental importance, systematics collections support a wide variety of pure and 
applied studies and also serve as foci of public interest and concern. A corollary of this relationship 
is that biodiversity research and concern tends to be greatly restricted wherever systematics 
collections are sparse or non-existent; this appears to be the case even though both biological 
specimens and systematic expertise can to a degree be distributed. 

Figure 8 shows the 20 countries having most systematics collections in relation to their national level 
of biodiversity (see Note below for explanation). These resources are here represented by the sum of 
the number of natural history museums, zoos, and botanic gardens. Countries most rich in biodiversity 
(see Figure 2) are relatively poor in systematics collections; with the exception of USA, all countries 
with a large number of systematics collections are not rich in biodiversity. Correcting this degree of 
imbalance, or at least the implied differential availability of expertise, will be necessary if the goals of 
the Convention on Biodiversity are to be met at a satisfactory level. 

NOTES TO TABLE 9 

This table provides estimates of the number of various kinds of systematics collections present in each country. 

Key: 

Indicates lack of data. 

The data tabulated are not definitive; collections will certainly be incompletely and unevenly reported in the source compilations 
and databases. However, the figures overall are probably indicative of the relative distribution of collections and expertise 
available as a basis for systematics research and education. It is important to note that data are not additive across columns; 
eg. the same institution may be counted in both the botanic garden and herbarium columns. 

We thank Diane Wyse Jackson of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) for a listing of botanic gardens from the 
BGCI database (current at 24 August 1994) and Hideaki Sugawara of the World Data Centre on Microorganisms (WDCM) for 
data on number of collections of live microorganisms registered with WDCM in 1 993. 

Column 2, Natural history museums: The figure for each country is the sum of the number of institutions indexed under botany, 
natural history and zoology in Bartz et al. (1992). 



Table 9. Systematics collections 

Column 3, Insect and spider museum collections: These figures indicate the number of public collections of preserved Insect 
and spider specimens as collated by Arnett and Samuelson (1986). The insects comprise around 90% of the world's species 
and many are of great economic significance. Data gathering for the source used ended in December 1984; there is no more 
recent compilation known to us. Lack of a figure in this column means that no insect collection was known to Arnett and 
Samuelson in 1 984; further collections may have existed at that time and others will have been started. 

Column 4, Herbaria: Number of herbaria (together with botanic gardens that include herbaria) per country. Some data refer to 
former countries now divided. Derived from Table 3 in Holmgren etal. (1 990) with later additions from Holmgren and Holmgren 
(1991, 1993, 1994). 

Column S, Zoos: These figures are from the most complete and recent published listing of captive animal collections (Swengel, 
1993). Some of the institutions included are small private collections, some are major research centres. 

Column 6, Aquaria: These estimates include specialist aquaria and zoos that have live fish collections. These figures are intended 
to provide some indication of the interest shown in fishes. See previous notes and source. These figures are for all captive animal 
collections that are recorded in Swengel (1993) as keeping fishes; no data are available for many institutions, but it appears 
likely that details will have been made available by most specialist aquaria. Some collections comprise one or two species, a 
few specialist aquaria hold more between 100 and 500 species. 

Column 7, Botanic Gardens: Information derived from the database of Botanic Gardens Conservation International provided by 
Diane Wyse Jackson, current at 24 August 1 994. 

Column 8, Microorganisms: Collections of living cultures of microorganisms registered with the World Data Centre on 
Microorganisms (WDCM) in 1 993. Information kindly provided by Hideaki Sugawara, 7 October 1 994 (and see Sugawara et al. 
1993). 

NOTES TO FIGURE 8 

This map shows the 20 countries which have the greatest number of systematics collections per 'unit' of biodiversity. The 
number of such collections is here represented by the sum of the number of natural history museums, zoos and botanic gardens. 
Biodiversity richness is estimated according to a form of national biodiversity index: see text under Table 1 (Notes to Figure 2) 
for an outline of the derivation of this index. 



133 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 9. Systematlcs collections 



Natural Insect & H«rt>arla 

History spider (& botanic 

Musauma musaum gardans with 

collactlons harbaria) 



Zoos 



Aquaria 

(& zoos 

with flah 

collactlona) 



Botanic Microoroanlams 
Gardens 



EUROPE 



Albania 
Andorra 
Austria 
Belarus 
Belgium 

Bosnia & Herzegovina 

Bulgaria 

Croatia 

Czech Republic 

former Czechoslovakia 



11 
1 
8 



18 



12 



20 
1 
8 



11 

8 

16 



6 

6 

26 

40 



3 

3 

13 



63 
3 



9 

7 
26 



15 

2 



Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 



12 
50 
66 



2 
1 

2 

5 

30 



20 
55 
59 



16 

1 

4 

40 

215 



4 
1 
1 
7 
38 



8 

3 

8 

68 

75 



2 
15 
14 



Gibraltar 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 



5 
8 
2 

18 



1 
4 
17 
2 
8 



Italy 

Letvia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 



71 



14 



56 



32 
1 



10 
1 



48 

2 



Macedonia 

Malta 

Moldova 

Monaco 

NetheMands 



28 



1 
1 

13 



7 
1 
2 
1 
39 



Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Romania 
San Marino 



7 

26 

3 

9 



7 
28 
20 
14 



6 
25 
12 
10 



Slovakia 

Slovenia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzeriand 



13 

1 

12 

7 
31 



47 

13 
15 



3 
2 

19 
15 
35 



7 
3 

13 
9 

22 



Ukraine 

United Kingdom 
former Yugoslavia 



14 
40 

7 



2 

23 

3 



556 
9 



8 
104 

2 



5 
31 



33 
64 
16 



25 
2 



134 



Table 9. Systematics collections 



ASIA 



Natural Inuct & Hartiaria 

HIatory apldar (& botanic 

Muaauma muaaum gardani with 

collactlona harbarial 



Zooa 



Aquaria 

(& zooa 

with flah 

collactlona) 



Botanic MIcroorganiama 
Gardana 



Afghanistan 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 



Bhutan 

BIOT 

Brunei 

Cambodia 

China 



336 
1 

1 

51 

6 



131 



54 



69 



13 



Cyprus 
Georgia 
Hong Kong 
India 
Indonesia 



33 
2 



1 

23 

2 



1 
3 
2 

72 
13 



5 

4 

72 

5 



12 
14 



Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 



2 
1 

6 

26 



1 

1 

1 

12 



5 

9 

6 

47 



1 
1 
5 

160 



31 



3 
1 

7 
54 



2 

23 



Kazakhstan 
Korea, D.P.R. 
Korea, Republic 
Kuwait 
Kyrgyzstan 

Laos 

Lebanon 
Malaysia 
Maldives 
Mongolia 

Myanmar 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 
Russia 
Saudi Arabia 
Singapore 
Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Tajikistan 

Thailand 

Turkey 



1 
1 
1 
8 
4 

10 



4 
22 



1 
1 

1 
3 

4 

2 

16 

3 

3 

1 

3 
1 
6 

3 




10 



2 

1 

5 
9 

74 

2 
1 
5 

3 
5 
5 
6 



10 



59 

2 



135 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 9. Systematics collections 





Natural 

Hiatory 

Muaauma 


Insect & 

aplder 

muaaum 

collacttona 


Hartiaria (& 

botanic 

gardens with 

hartiarial 


Zooa 


Aquaria 

(& zoos 

withflah 

collections) 


Botanic 
Gardena 


MIcroorganlama 


ASIA contlnuad 
















Turkmenistan 


. 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


United Arab Emirates 


- 


- 


1 


2 


2 


- 


- 


lormer USSR 


- 


7 


104 


- 


- 


- 


7 


Uzbekistan 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


4 


- 


Viet Nam 


- 


1 


3 


1 


- 


3 


- 


Yemen 


- 


- 


• 


- 


- 


- 


- 


OCEANIA 
















American Samoa 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


Australia 


3 


9 


38 


21 


8 


63 


50 


Cook Islands 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Federated States of Micronesia 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rji 


- 


2 


1 




- 


2 


- 


French Polynesia 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Guam 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Kiribati 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Marshall Islands 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Naum 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


New Caledonia 


- 


1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


New Zealand 


5 


17 


16 


S 


4 


17 


9 


Niue 


- 


- 


- 






• 


- 


Northern Merianas 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


Palsu 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Papua New Guinea 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


4 


1 


Pitcaim Islands 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Solomon Islands 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Tokelau 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Tonga 


- 




- 




- 


- 


- 


Tuvelu 


- 


- 


. 


. 


- 


. 


. 


USA Pecific Islands 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Vanuatu 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wallis & Futuna 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Western Samoa 




- 


- 






1 





NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA 



Anguitia 

Antigua & Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas 

Barbados 



- 


- 


■ 


4 


- 


- 




2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 


1 


26 


94 


110 


57 


16 


18 



Belize 

Bermuda 

Canada 



28 



136 



Table 9. Systematics collections 



Natural Insect & Herbaria 

HIatory spldar (& botanic 

Muaauma muaeum gardens with 

collactlona herbaria) 



Aquaria 

I& zooa 

wIthfUh 

collectlont) 



Botanic Microorganlsma 
Gardena 



NORTH «• CENTRAL AMERICA continued 



Cayman Islands 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 
Dominica 
Dominican Republic 



3 
15 



El Salvador 

Greenland 

Grenada 

Guadeloupe 

Guatemala 



Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Martinique 

Mexico 



1 

2 
2 

46 



16 



1 
3 
4 
3 
35 



10 



Montserrat 
Netherlands Antilles 
Nicaragua 
Panama 
Puerto Rico 



Saint Kitts-Nevis 
Saint Lucia 
Saint Vincent 
Trinidad & Tobago 
Turks & Caicos Islands 



USA 

Virgin Islands (British) 

Virgin Islands (US) 



182 



270 
1 
1 



31 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 
French Guiana 
Guyana 
Paraguay 
Peru 

Suriname 
Uruguay 
Venezuela 
AFRICA 

Algeria 



41 

16 
6 
9 



6 

2 

66 

9 

7 

5 
1 
2 
1 

8 

2 
2 

5 



41 
4 
88 
10 
22 

10 
1 

2 

3 

11 

1 

6 

15 



8 

4 

73 

3 

6 



1 
3 

1 

3 
13 



9 
4 

24 
8 

13 

3 

2 
2 
1 
6 

1 
1 

7 



44 
1 
1 



137 



BIODIVERSITY DATA SOURCEBOOK 



Table 9. Systematics collections 



Natural Intact & Harfoaria 

History tpidar {& botanic 

Museuma muaaum gardana with 

collactlona harbarfa) 



Zooa Aquaria Botanic Mlcroorganlanu 

(& zooa Gardana 

whh fish 
collactlons) 



AFRICA continued 



Angola 
Benin 
Botswana 
Burkina faso 
Burundi 



Cameroon 
Cape Verde 

Central African Republic 

Chad 

Comoros 



Congo 

cote d'lvoire 
Djibouti 
Egypt 
Equatorial Guinea 



Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia 

Ghana 



Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 

Kenya 

Lesotho 

Liberia 



Libya 

Madagascar 

Malawi 

Mali 

Mauritania 



Mauritius 

Mayotte 

Morocco 

Mozambique 

Namibia 



1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


- 


1 
7 


1 


1 


1 



Niger 

Nigeria 

Reunion 

Rwanda 

Saint Helena & depend. 



SSo Tomd & Prfncipe 

Senegal 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 



138 



Table 9. Systematics collections 



AFRICA continued 



Natural Intact & Harbaria 

Hlatory spMar (& botanic 

Mutauma mutaum gardant with 

collactiona haibaila) 



Zooa Aquaria Botanic MIcroorganlima 

{& zooa Qardana 

withfiah 
collactiona) 



South Africa 

Sudan 

Swaziland 

Tanzania 

Togo 



13 
1 



37 
3 



16 
1 



19 
1 



Tunisia 
Uganda 

Western Sahara 
Zaire 
Zambia 



Zimbabwe 



ANTARCTICA 



Falkland Islands 

French S & Antarctic Territories 



139 



U2 




S S 



» s 

E-2 



■H .fcX 



.>8 
■o o 






"E 



5 o 

8.1 

D > 



O 
"I 



c 
o 

CM 



£ E 
(0 O 



03 O^iS 
■— ^ to 
LL HO 




143 



144 





145 



146 




0) 

s « 

'q. •- 
o <^ 



CO ■£ 

£ — 
.9 >. 



C a 
.2 5 



148 




w > 

> S 

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154 



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At the 1 992 Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro the World Conservation 
Monitoring Centre published Global Biodiversity: Status of the 
Earth's Living Resources. That 600 page book presented 
state-of-the-art information on the world's biological biodiversity, 
what and where it is to be found, what it is worth and how well it is 
protected. This sequel presents further information on biodiversity, 
the earth's most pressing environmental issue. Topics are covered 
in a concise way, using tables supported by minimal text and some 
graphics. They include: 

Country species diversity, threatened species, national Red Data 
Books, major food crops, marine resources, forests in the tropics. 

The WCMC Biodiversity Series presents the results of projects 
earned out by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, often in 
partnership with lUCN, WWF, UNEP or other organisations. This 
new series is focused on providing support to the Parties to the 
Convention on Biological Diversity, helping them to identify and 
monitor their biodiversity, to manage and apply information on 
biodiversity effectively and to exchange information. 

The WCMC Biodiversity Series General Editor is N. Mark Collins, 
Director of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, based in 
Cambridge, UK, was established in 1988 as a company limited by 
guarantee with charitable status. WCMC is managed as a 
joint -venture between the three partners in the World Conservation 
Strategy and its successor Caring For The Earth: lUCN - The World 
Conservation Union, UNEP - United Nations Environment 
Programme, and WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature. The Centre 
provides information services on the conservation and sustainable 
use of species and ecosystems and supports others in the 
development of their own information systems. 



Further information available from 
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ISBN -1-899628-00-2